Interior of the S. Clemente Basilica in Rome.
“Basilica” fig. 16. Encyclopædia Britannica (1910), vol. 3 p. 475.

notions [←nōti·o, -ōnis]

This page presents material akin to glossary entries, but with the caveat that doing so authoritatively would require formal training & experience in theology or liturgy that the lay cradle-Catholic author of this Web page understands (that) he does not possess. Thus, the entries are best interpreted as his notes from his investigation (“nōti·o, -ōnis) of the traditional Catholic aspects of these topics.
The key (or advice for readers) for issues of content and its presentation that are peculiar to this Web-site, e.g.: now constitutes a separate “Key” Web page within this site.

Sources routinely consulted by the author of this Web page are identified on a separate “Sources” Web page within this site. Nevertheless, readers might be well advised to check the glossary presented by the Traditio Network in its “FAQ06: What do these traditional Catholic terms mean” (which the author of this Web page considers more authoritative than his own work whenever Catholic teaching is involved, albeit less practical, because the file-format chosen by Traditio prevents individual links to individual terms).
For quicker access to entries that begin with specific letters of the Latin alphabet, use the links below:

0123456789 a b c d e f g h i j k L m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
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Note †: This Web page is not an official part of the Web site for Sacred Heart Traditional Catholic Church (SHTCC).  Development, hosting, and funding of this Web page is independent of SHTCC. 

The content of this Web page is provided by this site's webmaster as supplemental material that should be understood to be secondary to the official mission of this Web site[*]. In particular, SHTCC has not provided any of the content of this Web page; text and links presented herein have not been approved by the pastor or other clergy of SHTCC.  Thus, SHTCC is not responsible for its contents.

To reduce--if not prevent--confusion herein when using demonstrative pronouns to refer to Web sites, “this Web page” or “this Web sitealways refers to the Web site for SHTCC; whereas “that Web page” or “that Web sitealways refers some other Web site being discussed, even when it is the subject of discussion.
[Note *: As a summary, the official mission of this Web site is to make the current schedule of SHTCC Masses and devotions available via the Internet, especially to potential new parishioners and other Catholic visitors in this tourism-intensive region. ]


12 Days of Christmas
The common description: “from Christmas to Epiphany”, occupies either 13 days (inclusively) or 11 days (exclusively) on the modern 12-month solar calendar that prevails in modern Western culture. A sequence of exactly 12 days seems to require that 1 of those major feasts be excluded, to allow its opposite feast to be included. So there are only 2 plausible alternatives:

[Note *: The webmaster for this Web site remains uncertain about the credibility that ought to be placed in the on-line sources for the counterintuitive 2nd alternative, so he declines to identify them as references in this summary. He's been unable to locate credible published sources that explicitly identify the 12 dates, or explain which 1 of 13 days is omitted in Catholic tradition. Or any other specifically identified Christian tradition. Yes, that frustration includes consulting the Catholic Encyclopedia :
  • ‘ The Second Council of Tours (can. xi, xvii) proclaims, in 566 or 567, the sanctity of the “twelve days” from Christmas to Epiphany [....] ’ (double-quotes as in C.E. article; alas, it doesn't contain any except from the identified council, which might've provided the conclusive answer that's sought herein). Cyril Charles Martindale 1908: "Christmas" § "Popular merry-making". Vol. 3. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (approx. 23 way through Web page, which lacks fragment ids).
  • “[Epiphany][:] Known also under the following names: [...] (5) Twelfth Day, Swedish Trettondedag” (name as ordinal day not explained in article). Cyril Charles Martindale 1909: "Epiphany". Vol. 5. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <>.
  • Walter Drum 1910: "Magi (Plural of Latin magus; Greek magoi)". Vol. 9. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <>.
Some sources consulted seem clueless about the 11-vs.-12-vs.-13 ambiguity that results from the common wording. How difficult can it really be to specify the exact dates of those “12 Days”?  Isn't this a question that should be expected to have a ready & conclusive answer in response to centuries of predictable questions from children: “But which ‘12 Days’, Mommy?”  Might it be an issue involving Vespers or liturgical-day boundaries? ]


Self-sacrifice by omitting certain kinds of food from one's diet for meals or entire days, either as mandated by the Church for all the faithful (except the youngest), or as mandated by various religious orders, or on one's own initiative. When mandated, the principal issues are what kind of food is allowed, and when or at what meals:
Meat has been customarily understood to include not only the flesh, but also the blood (thus morcilla and other blood-sausages), the stock (thus also derived soups), and the rendered fat (thus also lard, schmal(t)z, suet, and derived gravies) [†] of warm-blooded creatures.

Especially for mandated days, dates, history, and theology, see, e.g.:
The related self-sacrifice by omitting meals from one's diet, or reducing one's usual quantity of food at meals, is a fast.
[Note *: As a digression, the webmaster recognizes that rules of abstinence would not allow sausage made from edible parts of warm-blooded creatures, but he'd greatly appreciate being alerted to any brand of sausage that produces enough drippings on nonabstinence days that they can be used for frying eggs immediately afterwards. Modern sausage for U.S. markets seems to contain much less fat than in decades past, so 1 butcher has recommended trying sausage either from Latin America, or sold specifically to Latin-American ethnic markets.

Note †: Lard is the soft(er) fat from mammals, especially pigs. Schmaltz or schmalz (from Yiddish, spelled in English either with or without the ‘t’) is the fat from birds, especially chickens or geese, customarily rendered with onions. Suet is the hard(er) fat from mammals, typically around the kidneys. ]
anchoret | anchorite
From Mediæval Latin “anachōrēta”, from Greek “αναχωρέω” (“anachōreō ”)[*]: to retire or withdraw.

The practical opposite is a cenobite.
[Note *: Although derived directly from “χωρέω”, not from the apparently cognate “χωρίζω” (“chōrízō ”): “to separate“ or “to sever”, the latter may have been involved in giving the Latin word the sense of solitary [&dagger] retirement.

Note &dagger: If there's any religious distinction between an anchorite or an eremite a.k.a. hermit, it's escaped the notice of the author of this Web page. Some distinctions are plausible, e.g.: the existence or absence of a religious superior, or the type or formality of vows. ]
Opposition to modernism, as exemplified by extensive papal writings in recent centuries. They advocated traditional Catholic principles as antidotes to the continuing social & political changes confronting the Church and the secular world. Especially noteworthy for their responses to modernism were the Popes Gregory XVI (s. 1831--1846), Pius IX (s. 1846--1878), Leo XIII (s. 1878--1903), Pius X (s. 1903--1914), and Pius XI. (s. 1922--1939).

Among the most important of those writings (in chronological order) :
[Note #: This is the only papal document in this list to bear a date before the calendar reform of Pope Gregory XIII (s. 1572--1585), thus it was issued on a date according to the Julian calendar, (the latter) known in some subfields of history as “Old Style” “(O.S.)”. “Datum Romae apud S. Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominicae millesimo quingentesimo septuagesimo, pridie Idus Julii [....]”: “Given at Rome at <the place of> St. Peter, in the year of the Lordly Incarnation 1570, on the day-before Ides of July (thus 14 July). To maintain the literalness of the translation of that date, the translation of the genitive case of the adjective “Dominic·us | -a | -um” was not loosened to the more customary “of Our Lord” (the Webmaster assuming that the nonclassical ecclesiastical Latin noun “incarnati·o, -ônis” requires the feminine-genitive ending “-ae” by virtue of being ecclesiastically assigned feminine gender, following the model of the classical noun “nati·o, -ônis” (f.): a “birth”).

Note *: The preceding English words in the style of an essay title, beginning with “on”, in this bulleted item, are not a translation of a subtitle or other words that actually appear in the Latin official text, but merely a brief description of its topic, commonly absent from the official Latin edition, leading to the assumption that they were added to the English translation. Each of the papal documents like those compiled herein are customarily identified by their incipit (q.v.), derived from its official edition as written in Latin. A literal translaton of each incipit is shown in the bulleted list above immediately after the Latin, double-quoted within parentheses (but that translation is unable to be provided herein when the official Latin text has not yet been found, despite searches that include visiting the Vatican Web-site).

Note †: The oath was dropped nearly 1 1/2 years after Paul VI formally closed Vatican II (7 Dec. 1965). A traditionalist cynic might wonder why he waited so long: Only 6 days after his election (thus 27? June 1963), Paul announced his decision to reöpen his predecessor's council, and it seems that such a Vatican insider would've recognized that there'd be lots of those oaths violated in the reöpened council. It's also fascinating that the oath was dropped only 11/2 years before Paul's “auto-distruzione” address (7 Dec. 1968), only 13/4 years before the Novus Ordo Missae was released (3 Apr. 1969), and 5 years before his notorious “smoke of Satan” sermon (29 June 1972). ]
Arian  |  Arianism
(No relation to the linguistic nor racial term ‘Aryan’.)

Summary: A heresy that claimed that Jesus the Christ was not--and is not--God, but, loosely stated, merely “resembles” God. Named for Arius (A.D. ca. 250--336), who attained his fame as a persistent promoter of the heresy, even though he was not its inventor. Although a Libyan, a/the son of Ammonius[#], he'd passed by one of the major Greek-speaking centers of Christianity, at Alexandria (Egypt), to learn his religion instead in Syria, where debates in Greek on philosophical fine-points of religion could attract interested audiences. Someone who professes this heresy is termed an ‘Arian’, not, e.g., an ‘Arianist’ nor an ‘Arist’.[†]

Thus the debates advocating heretical “ hOmoiousion”, countered by the orthodox Catholic “ hOmoousion” .[†]  Yes! A heresy that turns on the presence or absence of just 1 of the least of the Greek letters: the iota, Anglicized as the jot. The prefix «ՙÓμοι(ος)» means “like” or “resembling” (equivalent Latin “similis”), but «ՙΟμό(ς)» means “one and the same” (equivalent Latin “communis”). The word with which the prefixes were combined is a grammatical variation on «ουσία» “ousía”, meaning “substance” (i.a.).[*]
[Note †: Readers are hereby referred to the following encyclopedia articles, from the perspective of the fully traditional times of Pius X, more than a century ago:

William Barry 1907: "Arianism". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

William Barry 1907: "Arius". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note #: The name Ammonius has no significance other than the statement in the biographical source cited above: “His father's name is given as Ammonius.”

Note *: Although the webmaster is capable of locating & quoting definitions from (The) Classic Greek Dictionary, he recognizes that he has no theological training beyond the traditional catechism-based ‘religion’ classes taught by traditional nuns in Catholic parochial schools, thus his recommendation in the note[†] above. ]


From ecclesiastical Latin “episcop·us”, from Greek «επίσκοπος, -ὁ» (“epískopos, -ho”), meaning an “overseer” or “guardian”. It's disappointingly unrelated to classical Latin “piscāt·or, -ōr·is”, meaning a “fisherman” [Mt. 4:19; Mc. 1:17] or “fishmonger”.

See, e.g., contemporary encyclopedic articles from the perspective of the traditional times of Pius X, a century ago (i.e.: links into the Catholic Encyclopedia , in alphabetical order):
Abbreviation for the Latin appositive phrase “Beät– Mari– Virg–”, meaning “Blessèd Mary (the) Virgin”. Depending on the Latin grammatical-case-determining endings (replacing the dashes in specific occurrences of the Latin words), it may be in the genitive case, i.e.: equivalent in English to a possessive phrase (typically constructed by prefixing “of the”).

Thus, the subject abbreviation is not a typo; it's the Latin equivalent of the English “Blessèd Virgin Mary” that's abbreviated “BVM”.

The Catholic Encyclopedia [*], drawing from various sources in Latin and the European foreign languages, clarifies that her given name in Hebrew would've been “miryam”, corresponding to the Aramaic and Syriac “Maryam”. If she had been named after anyone, e.g., in the Old Testament, her name is unique, identifying only the sister of Moses.
[Note *: Anthony Maas 1912: “The Name of Mary”. The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 15. Robert Appleton Co.: New York; New Advent 2009: CD Edn. 2.1 (compiled 26 Apr. 2010). <http: //>. ]
breviary [ D R A F T ]
The Breviarium Romanum.

[Please see “Learning the Breviary: A Brief Dictionary of Terms for Reference”, by Bernard A. Hausmann, S. J. (Benzinger Brothers, ca. 1932, pp. 25-34), accessible via the Traditio Network.]


From the classical Greek verb «κατ·ηχέω» (“katēchéō”), meaning i.a., “to teach the elements of religion”, especially orally.

One of the religious benefits of the new movable-type printing technology of the 15th century, was that it made written catechisms practical as a tool for teaching the faithful. Traditional Catholic catechisms in English, containing the Precepts of the Church or chief commandments of the Church, and explanations of them, are now available via the Internet, hypertext, and WWW technologies of the late-20th century:
Catechisms are also available via the prepaginated PDF technology intended especially for directly printable documents:
[Note @: “Maredsous” seems most likely to be a reference to Maredsous Abbey: a Benedictine monastery established in 1872 in Namur province (modern Wallonia region, Belgium). The name is not otherwise explainable by geography (e.g.: in the Molignée Valley, the nearest village being named Dinêye), nor by its benefactors (brothers Jules & Henri Desclée). But the benefactors did establish multiple enterprises, printing ecclesiastical & theological works, and the abbey did produce an even grander work in 1950: a new translation of the Bible into French. So whatever “Maredsous” means, it seems likely that the 1902 work was connected with the abbey. ]
Cave !  The generically named Catechism of the Catholic Church is actually the modernist revision for the Novus Ordo (its opening with the ‘apostolic constitution’ “Fidei depositum”, by Pope John Paul II (11 Oct. 1992), being conclusive evidence). If an on-line search finds a "catechism" with 4-digit-numbered paragraphs, then the modernist catechism is what it's found. So, when a purportedly traditional author or blogger cites 4-digit section numbers from an unidentified source, that might serve well as a revelation to the reader that the writer (e.g.: “Z”: 29 Dec. 2009) isn't really traditional after all. ]
Cf. “Precepts of the Church”.
A member of a cenobium.

The practical opposite is an anchorite or eremite a.k.a. hermit.
Religious community whose members (e.g.: monks, nuns) live in common. Late-Latinized from the Greek κοινός” (“koinós”), meaning “(shared in) common” + (some derivative of) βίος” (“bíos”), meaning, i.a., “manner of living”. Surprisingly not directly related [&dagger] to cēno, -are”, meaning “to dine” (i.e.: eat the midafternoon main meal), which is the basis for cēnācul·um, -i” (n.), meaning “dining room” (and the corresponding noun “cēna, -ae” (f.) is the basis for cēnātio, -ōnis” (f.), meaning “dining hall”).
[Note &dagger: In this instance, meaning that it was the author of this Web page who was surprised that his customary reference material did not indicate what seemed to be an obvious linguistic connection between a shared life and a shared main meal. ]
Latin “Christus, -i” (m.), assimilating the native-Greek “christós” (“χριστός” or “ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ”), meaning “anointed”, from Greek “chrisma” (“χρισμα”), meaning “ointment” or “unguent”. As used with the name Jesus, the adjective has the ‘substantive’ meaning “anointed one”, same as the Hebrewmashiah”. Thus, “Christ” is a title (historians would call it an epithet, in the original sense of that word). It is not a family name; the parents of Jesus were not named Mary & Joseph Christ. In English, “Christ” is most properly used with the article “the”, so “Jesus the Christ” is “Jesus the Messias”, as predicted in the Old Testament, long awaited by Jews, and regrettably unrecognized by the people awaiting Him.
Christ the King
Please see the alternative phrase: “Kingship of the Christ”.
Christophobia [ D R A F T ]
Defined by analogy with a contrived word that's popular with promoters of Islam (and with the submissive ‘mainstream news media’), on the principle “turnabout is fair play”:
[...] a fair-minded assessment of recent events and trends leads to the conclusion that the scale and severity of Islamophobia pales in comparison with the bloody Christophobia currently coursing through the Muslim-majority nations from one end of the globe to the other. The conspiracy of silence surrounding this violent expression of religious intolerance has to stop. Nothing less than the fate of Christianity-- and ultimately of all religious minorities-- in the Islamic world is at stake. From blasphemy laws to brutal murders to bombings to mutilations and the bombing of religious sites, Christians in so many nations live in fear. [†] [emphasis added]
[Note †: Ayaan Hirsi Ali: (54-pt. all-caps “The war on Christians”: front cover) “The rise of CHRISTOPHOBIA” (108-pt. all-caps type for emphasis in original: p. 28). Newsweek, vol. 159, num. 7 (13 Feb. 2012), p. 28--35. This cover-article is accessible on line (possibly in its entirety) free (as in “free bread”) at the magazine's Web site: <> [sic  (“alithe” is indeed run together, without any separator, as if it's a single word; presumably from a bug in their software)] "February 06 2012 12:00 AM". ]
(The) Church [ D R A F T ]
(This entry exists for gathering information to clarify the structure of the Church [@], and thus distinctions among its members, esp. when confronted by modernist efforts to marginalize the Catholic priesthood traditionally limited to men. English words or phrases within parentheses and double-quotes that have their initial letter capitalized, and are displayed as links, signify the titles of articles from the Catholic Encyclopedia):
[Note @: This entry seems highly likely to be renamed and moved after additional contemplation, development, or elaboration. ]
collectivism [ D R A F T ]
Please see the broader entry on “modernism” (below, with links).
communism [ D R A F T ]
Please see the broader entry on “modernism” (below, with links).
Conciliar [#]
Adjective referring, in a Roman Catholic context, to 1 or more ‘ecumenical council(s)’. Especially in the modern phrase ‘Conciliar Church’, it identifies the result of transforming the traditional Roman Catholic Church, according to the changes specified by Vatican II (1962--1965), into a modernist church. In the phrase ‘Conciliar popes’, it identifies the overt modernists who've presided over the Holy See since Vatican II, especially Paul VI, John Paul II, and Benedict XVI.

Earlier in the Church, there was a ‘counciliar movement’, whose belief or position was that decisions by an ‘ecumenical council’ would take precedence over a decree issued by the pope.
[Note #: Perhaps surprisingly (at least to the webmaster), the word contains only 1 (one) ‘L’ (ell). ]
coram Sacratissimo (Sanctissimo? [#])
Latin “coram”, i.a., a preposition meaning “in the presence of ”. Plus the abl. sg. of “sacratissim·us | -a | -um”, ecclesiastically meaning “Most Sacred (One)”[+], that being a use, as substantive, of the superlative of “sacrat·us | -a | -um”, which is the perfect passive participle of sacr·o, -are, meaning “to make holy”. Thus “in the presence of theMost Sacred (One)”.

Therefore, in the context of a Mass, one celebrated before the Most Blessèd Sacrament as exposed in the monstrance.
[Note +: Somewhere there must be a written statement of some conventions in the Church that cause 2 words with comparable meanings in Classical Latin to be specialized to have different translations into English, as exemplified by the Latin formal names of religious orders and congregations:
  • Sacratissim·us | -a | -um”, as “Most Sacred” (e.g.: “ ^ ^ Heart”); and
  • Sanctissim·us | -a | -um”, as “Most Blessèd” (e.g.: “ ^ ^ Sacrament”, and “ ^ ^ Trinity”), or as “Most Holy” (e.g.: “ ^ ^ Redeemer”).
For these and many more, see the compilation article in the Catholic Encyclopedia by Thomas Shahan 1907: "Ecclesiastical Abbreviations". C.E., vol. 1. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note #: The webmaster is disconcerted to read that the corresponding opening & concluding Masses themselves are solemn votive Masses “de Sanctissimo Sacramento” (notde Sacratissimo Sacramento”). See the article in the Catholic Encyclopedia by Herbert Thurston 1909: "Forty Hours' Devotion". C.E., vol. 6. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). ]


deacon [ D R A F T ]
Latin “diacon-” [*], from Greek «διάκονος» [¿« ,  -ὁ, -ἡ»?] (“diákonos ”), meaning a “servant” or “messenger”, or generically, a “minister of the [sic]church”.

No distinctive noun was used for the 7 “men of good reputation, full of the Spirit and of wisdom”, who were initially selected by “the multitude of the disciples” for the Apostles, who “laid their hands upon them”. Their originally intended function was expressed in the Vulgate as “ministrare mensis” (“to serve tables”) [Act. 6:2--3, 6:6].

See, e.g., contemporary encyclopedic articles from the perspective of the traditional times of Pius X, a century ago (i.e.: links into the Catholic Encyclopedia , in alphabetical order):
[Note *: The word appears only 3 times in the New Testament. This confounds figuring out the declension into which it fits, because even with fewer than a handful of samples, it's plainly gotten special treatment in the Vulgate. Readers more familiar with Classical Latin might even call the noun “mongrelized”:
  • “diacon·ibus” (Phlp. 1:1): Clas. Lat. 3rd-decl. abl.-pl. prep.-obj. of “cum”  (or 3rd-decl. dat.-pl., but not in this construction; or the same pair of cases for 4th-decl., which occurs too rarely to seem plausible).
  • “diacon·os”, in “Diaconos similiter pudicos” (1 Tim. 3:8): Clas. Lat. 2nd-decl. acc.-pl.  Missing implied words, but otherwise apparently a parallel contruction to “Si quis[?] episcopatum desiderat” (1 Tim. 3:1), thus plausibly “(Si quis[?] desiderat)”, taking an acc. noun.
  • “diacon·i” (1 Tim. 3:12): Clas. Lat. 2nd-decl. nom.-pl.  (or 2nd-decl. gen-sg., but not in this construction: iussive subjunctive, which requires nom. sg. or pl.).
Earlier references to similar Church orders or functions used the word “minister” . ]
From classical Latin “de·us, -ī ”, meaning not only any “god” from among the set revered by a polytheistic culture, but also when capitalized in the Catholic liturgy, the “one God”[†]; plus “caed·o, -ere, cecīd·i, caes·um”, meaning, i.a., “to kill”. Thus, the compound subject word means the act of killing a god. When capitalized in the context of Christianity, it refers to the death by crucifixion of the “one Lord, Jesus 〈the〉 Christ, the only-begotten Son of God”[†].

What sensible conclusion ought to be drawn by Catholics from the Holy Gospel of St. Matthew?  Notably his chapter 27 per the Challoner-R(h)eims Version (parenthesized text is per Vulgate):
22⟨Pontius⟩ Pilate saith to them: What shall I do then with Jesus that is called Christ?  (23)They say all: Let him be crucified. 23The governor said to them: Why, what evil hath he done?  But they cried out the more, saying: Let him be crucified. 24 And Pilate seeing that he prevailed nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, taking water washed his hands before the people, saying: I am innocent of the blood of this just man. Look you to it.

(25  Et respondens universus populus, dixit: Sanguis eius super nos, et super filios nostros). 

25And the whole people answering, said: His blood ⟨be⟩ upon us and upon our children

26Then [...] having scourged Jesus, delivered him unto them to be crucified.
The accusation of deicide is widely documented in the New Testament, as a few hours of study will easily reveal: Mt. [26:66; 27:1--2, 12--13, 22--26; 28:11--15], Mk. [15:1--4, 10--14], Lk. [22:66--68; 23:1--2, 5, 10, 13--14, 18,21, 23--25, 35; 24:19--20, Jn. [18:28,35; 19:14--16 (perh. also 19:11)], Acts [3:13--15,17; 5:30; 7:52], 1 Cor. [1:22--24], and 1 Thes. [2:14--15]; other N.T. books may contain additional instances.
[Note †: Quoted wording from a mid-20th-century Roman Catholic lay Missal translation of the Nicene Creed, concluding the Mass of the Catechumens for the traditional Latin Mass. ]
Latinization, as dioecēsis, -eos | -is” (f.), of Greek «δι·οίκησις, -ἡ», meaning not only “province” (loosely; cf. province) and “management”, but also “house-keeping”. Its root is the Greek “οικος”, meaning “house”, “dwelling”, or “camp”. The early Church was probably pleased by the coïncidence that the (apparently) unrelated Greek “διος” means, i.a., “divine”.

The middle of 3 hierarchical levels of territorial organization within the hierarchy of the Church, being derived from the diocese of the late-postclassical Roman Empire, as reörganized by Emperor Diocletian (r. A.D. 284--305), while he and the empire were still persecuting Christianity.

Each diocese is composed of multiple, typically contiguous, parishes, and is ruled by a bishop. Being in the middle of 3 levels, each diocese is combined with other, typically contiguous, dioceses, into an archdiocese or province.
Divine Office
An entire ‘department” of the Traditio Network Web site is devoted to the “Traditional Latin Mass, Divine Office & Sacraments”. See esp. the “DIVINE OFFICE & BREVIARIES” section in “FAQ 5: What traditional books do you recommend?”.
Abbreviation for Latin “Domin– Nostr– Ies–”, meaning “Our Lord Jesus”. Depending on the Latin grammatical-case-determining endings (replacing the dashes in specific occurrences of the Latin words), it may be in the genitive case, i.e.: equivalent in English to a possessive phrase (typically constructed by prefixing “of the”).
Abbreviation for Latin “Domin– Nostr– Ies– Christ–”, meaning “Our Lord Jesus the Christ”. Depending on the Latin grammatical-case-determining endings (replacing the dashes in specific occurrences of the Latin words), it may be in the genitive case, i.e.: equivalent in English to a possessive phrase (typically constructed by prefixing “of the”).
document (of the Church) [ D R A F T ]
This entry serves as an interim location for gathering material [@] to clarify the relative authority of writings issued by the Church, as presented in articles from the Catholic Encyclopedia: A cursory reading seems to indicate that only a Constitution, but not an Encyclical, has irreversable authority in the Magisterium. Perhaps there are compelling arguments to the contrary.
[Note @: This entry seems highly likely to be renamed and moved after additional contemplation, development, or elaboration.

Note *: English adj. from a presumed postclassical Latin adj. “hortatori·us | -a | -um”, plausibly arising from the classical Latin noun hortāt·or, -ōris” (m.), derived from “hort·or, -ari” (deponent), meaning “to encourage” or “to incite”. ]
dogma [ D R A F T ]
Latin “dogm·a, -at·is” (n.), from Greek «δόγμ·α, -ατος, τό», meaning a “thing thought to be true” or a “decree”; from «δοκέω» (“dokéō ”), meaning “to think, suppose, or expect”, but in some other verbal forms, “to be decreed” or “to be resolved”.

The rarely-depicted mother of the character “Dogbert” in the comic strip Dilbert [*].

For the interim, see articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia:
Cf. ‘pastoral’. [....] [†]
[Note *: Why, yes, I did write that during a troublingly hectic week. How could you possibly have known to ask?

Note &dagger: Perhaps readers should be comforted that the author of this Web page would not simply leap into this potentially problematic entry. But by typing the search-words “Catholic” “dogma”, and “Dogbert”, into at least 1 Internet search-engine, it responded with a link to this Web-page on its first page of search-results. ]
Abbreviation for the Douay-Reims Version of the Bible.

A translation into English from the (Latin) Vulgate of St. Jerome, by the Catholic scholars of the English College. Thus, it's fully faithful to traditional Catholic teachings. Its New Testament was completed while in exile in Reims, and was published there in 1582. Its Old Testament was completed at about the same time, but its publication was delayed because of a shortage of funding. It was able at last to be published, (back) in Douay, after the College had returned, in two volumes, in 1609 and 1610.

For comparison, the Anglican effort culminating in publication of the purportedly Authorized Version of King James in 1611, had begun with a conference of Anglican leaders at the King's Hampton Court (palace) in 1604. His majesty was enthusiastic, but did not provide financial support either for the expenses of the translators, nor for the actual printing. In return for his privileges as King's printer, Robert Barker paid all the costs of printing that work.
[Note #: Herein this “DR...” abbreviation is not for “Digital Rights ...” anything. ]


Germanic name for the major feast more formally named the ‘Sunday of the Resurrection’ (Eccl. Latin “Dom. Resurrectionis”). The days of the Death and Resurrection of the Christ were the only major anniversaries from the life of Jesus that were documented in the Gospels. There's no evidence-- or none that's survived-- that any of the eyewitnesses or participants ever thought to write down the exact year of those events [§]. Had anyone done so, it might've been possible to calculate their exact dates on the Julian calendar then used by the Romans: the direct predecessor of the Gregorian solar calendar [*] used for the Roman Catholic liturgical calendar and as the civil calendar for modern Western civilization. Although the anniversaries were tightly tied to the Jewish Passover, that was scheduled according to a lunar calendar, with rules allowing it to be scrubbed and rescheduled by the Temple officials based on local field observations [‡]. Only a dozen years after the Empire that crucified Him legalized the early Church, the latter settled on a date [†] for celebrating His Resurrection.

The early Church decided that the date when Easter would be celebrated would be calculated [#] for each year as a combination of 3 cycles:
As a result, Easter is celebrated each year on the 1st Sunday after the full moon known as the Paschal Full Moon, which, as a consequence of its definition, determines when Holy Week occurs, and falls within it.

The Gregorian formulæ determine the earliest and latest possible dates for Easter, thus for almost every other movable feast in the Catholic calendar:
[Note §: It's difficult to believe that the scribes of the Temple in Jerusalem would have failed to keep records about someone they considered as philosophically subversive as Jesus of Nazareth. Their own machinations were conveniently located for the scribes, occurring within the walls of Jerusalem, e.g.: assembling in the “court of the high priest”, conspiring to condemn him [Mt. 26:3--5], sending armed men to capture him [Mt. 26:47--51], and especially, assembling there again to try him [Mt. 26:57--68]. It's also difficult to believe that the scribes would have failed to document payment of 30 pieces of silver (“triginta argenteos”) to a Judas Iscariot [Mt. 26:14--15], or paying those same pieces to purchase the potter's land subsequently known as Haceldama [Mt. 27:7]? No entries in the Temple ledger at all? Or did the Temple have its own ‘black budget’, 2 millennia before the U.S. Congress? Alas, any such records would have gone up in flames during the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 70. Wouldn't the Romans, famous for meticulous administration, have documented a trial presided over by Pontius Pilate? Or the annual release by the Roman governor of a single prisoner by custom in honor of the Passover? Or each person condemned to crucifixion? Alas, again, the prevailing material for written documents then was papyrus, which in typical use, is not an archival material.

Note ‡: Whether grain in the fields at Jerusalem was close enough to harvest. Passover coïncides with the barley harvest; it's Pentecost that coïncides with the wheat harvest [St. Joseph (Textbook) Edition of the Holy Bible. O.T. p. 164 (Nm.) n. 28,26.

Note †: Specifications decided by the Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325).

It seems possible, with precise modern astronomical observation & timing, for an astronomical equinox, on occasional years, to be split between 2 calendar days at some international time-zone boundary, e.g.: on the day of the Vernal Equinox, because of the 24-hour day, the Paschal Full Moon occurs on Saturday on 1 side of the Atlantic, but on Sunday on the other side of the Atlantic.

Note #: Calendrical calculations on this Web site follow the extensive analysis of the date of Easter in “Frequently Asked Questions About Calendars”, by Claus Tøndering. ]
Easter Duty
The common name for what's more formally called the Paschal Precept [*].
[Note *: The primary discussion of the concept is at the article by that name herein, accessible via the immediately preceding link.

Readers who follow that article's external links to on-line copies of 3 traditional catechisms, might notice that the phrase “Easter Duty” does not appear among the text of the Precepts of the Church, nor the Chief Commandments of the Church. Nor does it appear in the Catholic Encyclopedia article “Easter”. So the phrase seems to be more informal than the typical Catholic realizes. That informality might explain why Web searches for “Easter Duty” (even as a ‘quoted’ phrase) are relatively unsuccessful--surprisingly so-- at locating authoritative sources.

Cave !  If a search finds a document with 4-digit-numbered paragraphs, esp. beginning with “2” for this topic (i.e.: 2042), then the modernist-revised catechism for the Novus Ordo is what it's found. ]
ecumenism | œcumenism [ D R A F T ]
Please see the broader entry on “modernism” (below, with links).
ember days
4 sets of 3 days, specifically the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday within a single week, mandated by the Church for fasting & abstinence. 1 set is designated for each of the 4 seasons, thus the Latin term “quattuor tempora” (3rd-decl. neut. nom.&acc. pl.), translatable either as “4 times” (in the sense of “occasions”) or “4 seasons”. The Latin phrase was corrupted in English to “ember” [*].

Their observance, documented at least as early as A.D. 222 (Pope Callistus), had the purpose, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, “to thank God for the gifts of nature, to teach men to make use of them in moderation, and to assist the needy.”

They are modeled after 4 [sets of?] Jewish “fast days”, commemorating events in the Babylonian conquest of Juda (588--587 B.C.), including Jerusalem, that ended in the Babylonian Exile [2 Par. 36:17--20]. Those days are listed by Zacharia [8:19] as being “the 4th, the 5th, the 7th, and the 10th months” of the Hebrew calendar. The events were grim:
These are the liturgical seasons and the date or day on which the ember days of each are based (herein called the ‘basis date’ or ‘basis day’):
The author of this Web-page has made an initial effort at correlating these natural events and their fruits with the sesquimonths, which had been devised by the Classical-Roman historian Varro, to focus agricultural attention & effort on his own rural lands more precisely than was possible using the customary broad division of the year into 4 seasons.

The dates for ember days, especially those based on a fixed date in the civil calendar (i.e.: for Autumnus and Advent/Hiems), seem to be a continual source of calendrical confusion for Catholics. Nevertheless, analysis shows that there are only 2 cases to be considered [#]:
  1. When the ‘basis date’ (or ‘basis day’) falls on Sunday through Tuesday, then the ember days fall in that same week (i.e.: before the next Sunday).
  2. When the ‘basis date’ (or ‘basis day’) falls on Wednesday through Saturday, then the ember days fall in the next week (i.e.: after the next Sunday).
These cases also apply, albeit somewhat trivially, to ember days based on a fixed day of the week.

Treating the 2 cases as rules can be shown by examples to yield the correct traditional dates:
    • 2011: St. Lucy's Day fell on Tue. (in 3rd week of Advent); ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of that same week: Dec. 14, 16, 17.
    • 2011: Quadragesima Sunday fell on Mar. 13; ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of that same week: Mar. 16, 18, 19, barely missing St. Patrick's Day.
    • 2011: Pentecost Sunday fell on June 12; ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of that same week: June 15, 17, 18.
    • 2010: Exaltation of the Holy Cross fell on Tue.; ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of that same week: Sep. 15, 17, 18.
    • 2006: St. Lucy's Day fell on Wed. (in 2nd week of Advent); ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of the next week: Dec. 20, 22, 23 (in 3rd week of Advent). This is also an example of the closest that ember days can approach Christmas (the 4th week of Advent contained only its Sunday, which was also Christmas Eve).
    • 2011: Ash Wednesday fell on Mar. 9; ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of the next week: Mar. 16, 18, 19.
    • 2011: Exaltation of the Holy Cross fell on Wed.; ember days were Wed., Fri., Sat. of the next week: Sep. 21, 23, 24.
[Note *: As a useful approximation: quattuor  t  empor a ”. It then dawned--largely literally--on the author of this Web page, that English has many words ending “-rt”, e.g.: “cart”, “fort”, “port”, and especially “wort”. So the apparently implausible corruption in which a word lost its initial consonant, might be explained by having “quattuor”, in effect, pull the “t” off “tempora” in vernacular speech (loosely: “kwat-wort”), before that first word faded away completely. The final “a” would've been lost over the centuries, because it's an inflected ending, and modern English has lost almost all of the endings originally in Old English (consider also the reverse in American ethnic humor, in which Italianized speech is commonly parodied by appendinga” to English words). And “kwat-wor  tem-por” rhymes.

Note † An alternative Catholic presentation, “MORE ABOUT EMBER DAYS”, in With Christ through the Year, by Rev. Bernard Strasser, O.S.B. (Bruce Publishing Co., © 1947), who pointed out the importance of wheat, wine, and olive oil to the traditional sacraments. Accessible as a transcription into a blog article for St. Mary Catholic Church; although now a Novus Ordo parish, it had been founded in 1885 in Salem, South Dakota. That parish used Summorum Pontificum (2007) as an opportunity to return its historic church to a single ad orientem altar, apparently reïnstalling a communion rail, and to offer the Extraördinary Form every Sunday and Saturday.

Note #: The analysis & examples presented here are original to the author of this Web page (i.q. the webmaster)-- as far as he knows-- as a productive reäction to repeated encounters with incorrect information at other Web sites promoting “traditional” Catholicism. Even the relatively trivial example for Pentecost was shown (i.e.: the ‘basis day’ is always a Sunday, so the 1st case will always be applied for that season), in part for the sake of completeness, and in part because of the author's computer-software bias: It's usually clearer, more efficient, and less error-prone to apply a straightforward set of rules for all cases, than to perform extra preliminary steps that look for opportunities to apply different simpler rules (or to avoid the rules altogether). The analysis & examples were verified by inspection of the on-line liturgical calendars, dating back to Jan. 2001, at the Traditio Network. ]
eremite | hermit
From Late-Latin erēmīta”, from Greek “ερημία” (“erēmía”) [*], meaning, i.a., “desert” or “solitude”. E.g., on 15 January in the traditional liturgical calendar: Feast of the St. Paul venerated as ‘First Hermit’, who died in A.D. 342 at age 113, after 90 years in the desert (reportedly per St. Jerome).

The practical opposite is a cenobite.
[Note *: It's not clear how the more familiar English word acquired its initial ‘h’; as indicated above, the initial letter of the Greek word does not have the dasia (a diacritical mark) that customarily accounts for an initial ‘h’ in Latin and English words derived from Greek. ]
Extraördinary Form a.k.a. Extraördinary Rite
Latin “Forma extraördinaria”. An invention of the NewVatican in the 21st century, appearing in the apostolic letter motu proprioSummorum Pontificum” by Pope Benedict XVI (7 July 2007). Although it cites “the Roman Missal promulgated by St. Pius V and reissued by Blessed John XXIII”, this Extraördinary Rite is not merely a novel phrase, but reportedly actually a new service: Starting with the “Mass of 1962”, NewVatican made additional changes in 2007 and 2008. Each parish church, chapel, &c. is allowed at most 1 Mass according to the Extraördinary Rite on any Sunday or feast day.

Despite its conspicuous--and possibly comforting--use of Latin, which can nevertheless be replaced by the vernacular for the readings, this new “rite” is not significantly more valid than the vernacular-language Novus Ordo Missae imposed on the modernist Catholic Church that resulted from Vatican II. The latter was dubbed the “ordinary rite” in “Summorum Pontificum” [†].

Thus, the “extraördinary rite” is not the same-- and should not be confused with-- the fully traditional Mass that's often labelled the Tridentine Mass.
[Note †: Although the Vatican Web-site provides an index in English of various decrees motu proprio issued by Pope Benedict, the actual text of each is typically available in Latin but not in English, which is the case for this controversial one (please parse this sentence carefully). See instead the English translation provided by the Traditio Network. ]


Self-sacrifice by omitting meals from one's diet, or reducing one's usual quantity of food at meals, for entire days, either as mandated by the Church for all the faithful (except the youngest and most elderly), or as mandated by various religious orders, or on one's own initiative.

For mandated days, dates, history, and theology, see, e.g.:
Cradle Catholics who remember repeated instruction from childhood to “fast & abstain on the days appointed” will not be surprised that traditional sources often provide information that combines both forms of sacrifice (instead of separating the information on each). To keep those citations from getting out of step herein, such combined information is provided on this page only in the alphabetically earlier entry “abstinence” (farther above).
From Latin “festum, -i”, meaning “feast”, from “festus, -a, -um”, meaning “festive” or “of a holyday” [....]
Not only from Classical Latinferi·ae, -arum (f. pl.)”, meaning “festivals” or “holydays”, but also from “feriatus, -a, -um”, meaning, i.a., “idle” (i.e.: freedom from labor, thus in that respect, akin to the Mosaic Jewish Sabbath).

Ancient Roman society observed some feriae based on agricultural aspects of its society, with their timing appropriate for the seasons of its Mediterranean climate, e.g.:

In the Breviary and Ordo: The merely-numbered identification for the days of the secular working week. Saturday and Sunday are identified as ‘Sabb.’ and ‘Dom.’, respectively. However, the JudæoChristian tradition that Sunday is the 1st day, and the Sabbath the 7th & last day, of any week, is retained, by numbering the modern English secular Monday through Friday as ‘Fer. 2’ through ‘Fer. 6’.

Cf. “ferial day”.
ferial day
A nonSunday, according to the Church liturgical calendar, on which neither a holy event nor a saint is celebrated [*].

In centuries of accumulated Catholic tradition, every day of the year has become associated with a holy event or one of the plenitude of saints, as one can easily see by inspecting a chronologically presented Lives of the Saints. Nevertheless, in 2010, e.g.: there are 34 ferial days, those being 10.9% of 313 nonSundays in the year. (E.g.: According to changes in the Church liturgical calendar no later than 1960, 11 August became a ferial day. The Vatican had decided that neither the feast of popular young martyr St. Philomena, nor the fully traditional feast of early martyrs Sts. Tiburtius & Susanna, was henceforth to be celebrated.)
[Note *: For those days, it appears that the Church adopted the inverse of the pagan Roman concept: From the idleness of implements of labor on a pagan holyday, being a day of rest or leisure for the populace, to the idleness in the liturgy of the Church in not celebrating a holy event or saint's feast on a particular day. ]
Cf. “feria”, especially for the shared derivation.
Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Pii X (FSSPX)
The official Latin name for the organization that was founded in 1970, by the French missionary Archbishop Marcel F.M.J. Lefebvre (1905--1991), as an organization for traditional Catholic priests. He founded it after participating at Vatican II, among the traditional clergy (notably including Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani), having been one of the appointees by Pope John XXIII to a commission to prepare documents for the council. But traditionalists turned out to be clearly in the minority at Vatican II.

Although the organization is known more commonly in English as the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX), “Frāternit·as, -āt·is” (f.!) is most correctly translated to English either as the Germanic word “Brotherhood” or the obvious Latinate word “Fraternity”. Classical Latin also provides the obvious word for the common mistranslation as “Society”: “Societ·ās, -āt·is” (f.), so it certainly could've been used instead by Abp. Lefebvre if he had thought it a more fitting choice. More crucially, the more common name also omits any English word corresponding to “Sacerdōtāl·is, -e”, meaning “Priestly”. It seems that its common omission has allowed the traditional laity at the organization's ‘Mass sites’ to forget that FSSPX is a brotherhood of men who have received traditional holy orders, and thus, does not include any of the lay rank-&-file in its decision-making processes--certainly not internationally, and perhaps from case-to-case, not even locally. This can be problematic when a lay congregation devoted to a particular ‘Mass site’ has been developed through the generous donations of its congregation, and operates effectively through the regular efforts of laypeople who've undertaken responsibilities as volunteers there, e.g.: to serve Mass, to visit the sick & infirm, to care for the altar, and to keep the site clean.

During the lifetime of its founder, FSSPX can probably safely be said to have been characterized by these points, i.a.:
It's no secret, in traditional-Catholic circles, that changes are taking place in the FSSPX, and they appear, 2 decades after the death of its founder, to be leading toward a future ‘accord’ with the modernist Vatican. Contrary to the traditional doctrines taught by Abp. Lefebvre, the changes being advocated after his death appear to require acceptance of the Novus Ordo religion that arose after Vatican II. These changes are led and supported--sometimes covertly, sometimes overtly--from FSSPX headquarters in Menzingen (Switzerland).

That site exercises centralized control over FSSPX publications, documents, and its Web presence. Regrettably, this means that official statements and documents that have been made public by FSSPX in the last few years, or placed on its Web sites, are not necessarily reliable indicators of actual doctrines or policies currently in effect, nor of goals currently being pursued, by that organization. That's if a curious Web-surfer can still find them: Documents expressing traditional doctrines taught by Abp. Lefebvre, if not congenial to the changes expected of FSSPX in an ‘accord’ with the Vatican, nowadays often evoke “page not found” messages from the various FSSPX Web sites.[†]

But Web pages and documents are not most important among what's now missing from FSSPX: It's no secret that dozens of traditionally ordained priests have been expelled from the organization for opposing modernist changes. It's also no secret that those expelled include the senior FSSPX bishop: Richard Williamson. The changes & on-going purge have led some observers to dub it the Neo-SSPX. What the near future holds for FSSPX as a viable traditional-Catholic organization can only be guessed at by outsiders.[*]

Sacred Heart Traditional Catholic Church (SHTCC) is not affiliated with the FSSPX.[#]

So why is FSSPX worth a somewhat lengthy entry on this Web page? Because it's currently very newsworthy: It's reputedly the largest international organization of priests who provide traditional Masses and sacraments to Roman Catholics. Any developments that reduce its commitment to traditional Catholicism will continue to be news-worthy.
[Note †: Alas, the SHTCC webmaster couldn't provide a fair & balanced presentation of the unsettled situation simply by writing a brief introduction to a handful of links to FSSPX Web pages. Even if those pages he's noted in the past still exist, he can't be certain that they haven't been edited, whether heavy-handedly or subtly (seeking ‘nuances’), to prevent readers from noticing changes from the traditional doctrines taught by Abp. Lefebvre.

Note *: The SHTCC webmaster has never been affiliated with an FSSPX ‘Mass site’. He claims no insider experience or information against which to check the organization's own publicity material, nor reports or claims by people who are either insiders or as much of an outsider as he is. The SHTCC webmaster has, therefore, written cautiously in describing the situation above. By this entry, he is certainly not recruiting for FSSPX. This entry has been limited to an overview adequate to distinguish this organization from others that might be covered in religious news. Beware that even some Web sites that profess “conservative Catholicism” or ‘traditional Catholicism” are plainly hostile to FSSPX and its founder (calling FSSPX “schismatic” is usually a reliable indicator). Among news sources that are not hostile:

  • At the Traditio Network, in its “Daily Commentaries from the Fathers”, does claim insider information, obtained via extensive contacts with FSSPX insiders, and they apply it, sometimes bluntly, to numerous news items that feature FSSPX.
  • Although <> is not a religious-news blog, it is an Internet message-board that seems to be the only one to have survived as truly traditionally Catholic (unlike the better-known piscivory-themed one, which has dramatically changed its overt philosophy). A substantial number of its registered regular participants apparently do have insider information, not only gained from experiences as laypeople who attend Masses celebrated by FSSPX (as often as practical for them), but also a few as former seminarians who departed before ordination. It has more than a dozen subforums, including 1 focused on “The Resistance” to modernist changes in FSSPX, and a broader one on “The Crisis in the [Catholic] Church”. There is a perception often expressed at the site, that Traditio has a grudge against FSSPX, but that perception seems more likely to arise from oversensitivity, evoked by a combination of tension created by ongoing changes in FSSPX, and the objectively unflattering nature of some of the news.

The webmaster hopes that its genuinely traditional members and their lay supporters will consider this entry a fair & balanced presentation.

Note #: In contrast, the Web-site that once existed under the geographically misleading name “Orlando Latin Mass”, which was not and is not affiliated with SHTCC, did indeed have some kind of affiliation with an FSSPX ‘Mass site’. ]


(No entries begin with ‘g’.)


Holy See [ D R A F T ]
From “sēd·ēs, -is” (f.), meaning “seat” or “chair”, referring in particular to “Sancta Sēdēs”: the Holy Chair of St. Peter in Rome. In a formal ecclesiastical sense, it's the place where the pope is actually residing at any particular time, even if he is in exile.

In our overwhelmingly secular modern times, the subject phrase has been treated, especially by news-media, as a synonym for Vatican City, or by modest geographical extension, Rome.

See, e.g., articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia, published only 4 decades after the diplomatic indignity of the “Unification of Italy”, thus published while the sitting pope: Pius X, was the 3rd of the 5 popes who considered themselves to be “prisoners of the Vatican”:
[Note &dagger: ]
Holy Week [ D R A F T ]
Palm Sunday (Eccl. Latin “Dom. II Passionis seu in Palmis”) through Holy Saturday (Eccl. Latin “Sabbato Sancto”), thus, not including Easter [†].
[Note †: Generally, when feasts are honored or celebrated for multiple days, it's done with an octave. The author of this Web page assumes that basing an octave on Palm Sunday, thus making Easter its octave day, was dismissed as an unacceptable subordination of Easter, which itself has a top-ranked octave. ]
‘Holydays of Obligation’ are days on which the faithful are obligated by the Church to attend Mass, [....]
Strictly speaking, neither Easter (“Dom. Resurrectionis”) nor Pentecost (“Dom. Pentecostes”), both on gray backgrounds below, are ‘Holydays of Obligation’, despite being top-ranked feasts, each with an octave. That's because each is a Sunday (“Dom.”), and Catholics are (already) obligated to attend Mass every Sunday.

Holydays of Obligation for the United States
1 January Circumcision Octav– Nativitat– DNI Circumcision of Jesus the Christ and (the) Octave Day of Christmas
Sunday 46 days after Ash Wednesday Easter Dom. Resurrectionis Resurrection of the Christ from the Dead
Thursday 39 days after Easter Ascension Ascensio Domini Ascension of the Christ to Heaven
Sunday 49 days after Easter Pentecost Dom. Pentecostes (O.E. “Hwita Sunnandæg”)
15 August Assumption of Our Lady Assumptionis BMV Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven
1 November All Saints Day Festum Omnium Sanctorum
8 December Immaculate Conception Conceptionis Immac. BMV (Feast of the Patron Saint of the U.S.A.)
25 December Christmas Nativitas DNI Birth of Jesus the Christ
homily  [DRAFT]
Novus Ordo replacement for a sermon.
[Note †: ]
hours, canonical  [DRAFT]
Herein, meaning the 7 specific canonical hours officially designated for prayer as compiled in the Breviary, according to Roman Catholic tradition [@], as the Divine Office. The Roman system of reckoning hours underlies at least 4 of these canonical hours (for the sake of simplicity, modern clock times in the following presentation assume not only local solar time [*], but also an equinoctial day [#], so that all 24 classical hours would have the same length):

  1. Matins + Lauds: [?] a.m.;
  2. Prime: 06:00–07:00 i.q. 6 a.m.–7 a.m.;
  3. Terce: 08:00–09:00 i.q. 8 a.m.–9 a.m.;
  4. Sext: 11:00–12:00 i.q. 11 a.m.–12 m.;
  5. Nōne: 14:00–15:00 i.q. 2 p.m.–3 p.m.;
  6. Vespers: [?] p.m.;
  7. Compline: [?] p.m..

The hour that began at sunrise (modern 06:00 i.q. 6 a.m.) was called “Prima Hora”: Latin for “1st hour”.

This correspondence to modern time continues through the next 3 canonical hours, i.e.:
This 3-6-9 pattern would seem to require a “Duodecima Hora”, Latin for “12th hour” (modern 17:00–18:00 i.q. 5 p.m.–6 p.m.) to conclude the canonical hours of daytime, but that role was assigned instead to the seemingly less precise “vesp·er, -eris | -eri” (m.), or “vesper·a, -ae” (f.), both Latin for “evening”.
[Note @: Traditional except that the examples use the Anglicized form of the Latin word for each hour.
Note *: The sun being nearest its zenith at exactly 12:00 m.
Note #: 24-hour cycle having the length of daytime equal to the length of nighttime, so that all 24 hours had the same length. ]
Hours, Liturgy of the
See Liturgy of the Hours.


Abbreviation for Latin “Ies–”, assimilating the Greek “Iēsous (« ιησους » or « ΙΗΣΟΥϚ ») [*], where what appears to be a Latin ‘H’ is actually the identically-shaped Classical Greek letter ‹ Η › (‘eta ’), representing the Greek long-‘E’ sound, and what appears to be a Latin zig-zag-styled ‘E’ is actually the Classical Greek letter ‹ Σ › (‘sigma ’), representing the Greek sibilant sound signified in English by ‘S’. In modern English, and even in the Latin text of some traditional Latin-English missals, the personal name of Our Lord is customarily spelled as “Jesus”, although neither Latin nor English actually had a separate letter ‘J’ until around 14 centuries after His birth.

In Latin, depending on the grammatical-case endings of the word (replacing the dash), His name may signify various grammatical roles in a sentence, including those for which English requires a prefixed preposition (e.g.: “by”, “for”, “of”, or “to”). Cave !  His name is in the 4th declension, not the 2nd declension that many readers, seeing the “-us” ending, might hastily assume.
[Note *: Anthony Maas 1910: "Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ". The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 8. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <>. ]
Latin for “(Let) it be printed!”[*], from “im·prim·o, -ere, -press·i, -press·um”.  1 of 2 formal approvals required from the Roman Catholic clergy before a document is allowed to be printed in the name of the Church. The other is the nihil obstat.
[Note *: An instance of  jussive subjunctive, which makes it possible for certain short sentences in English to be expressed in Latin by a single word. im·prim·o” is a 3rd-‘o’ conjugation verb; in this conjugation, “-ātur” signifies the 3rd-pers. sg. of the passive subjunctive (unlike in the 1st conjugation: the other -‘o’ conjugation, in which it signifies the passive indicative). ]
Independent Catholic Church of the Americas (ICCA)
An organization of churches that claims to observe the same feasts and liturgy as the Novus Ordo Catholic Church. But there the readily visible similarities reportedly end: Imagine that: Socially more liberal than John Paul II!

Sacred Heart Traditional Catholic Church (SHTCC) is not a part of, nor is it even affiliated with, ICCA.
[Note #: Some plainly untraditional or politically liberal positions that ICCA advocates would be easily identified by certain key phrases (a.k.a. ‘code words’) familiar in the mainstream media, but this webmaster has decided that those words will not appear anywhere on the SHTCC Web pages, to help people dependent on Internet search-engines to avoid drawing incorrect conclusions about SHTCC. ]
indifferentism  [DRAFT]
Please see the broader entry on “modernism” (below, with links).
From Latin “indultum”. As the perfect passive participle that it appears to be [*], it would mean “having been granted, foreborne, or indulged”. Using that participle as a substantive, it would mean “(something) having been granted, ...”.

An indult (a.k.a. general canonical faculty) is a grant by the pope or a Roman Congregation, typically to a bishop or other ordinary, of a specific exception to law that otherwise remains in force. It's limited in its duration, being granted for a specified period, e.g.: 5 years, 10 years, although sometimes applying to to an unspecified number of the faithful as ultimate beneficiaries.[+]
[Note *: Possibly a postclassical invention to provide a plausible supine (i.e.: 4th principal part of verbs) and a tense of participle that's absent or unattested from the classical Latin 2nd-conjugation verb “indulg·eo, -ēre, induls·ī, ________?”. This conjugation's 4th principal part is commonly irregular, but the stem of the supine is identical, by definition, to the stem of the perfect passive participle.

Note +: Andrew Meehan 1910: “Pontifical Indult”. Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 7. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

See also the English translation provided by the Traditio Network, specific to the motu proprioEcclesia Dei”, issued by Pope John Paul II (1988), and widely misunderstood as benefitting traditional Catholics by broadly authorizing celebration of “the Latin Mass”. ]
Directly from Latin “in-” (a privative prefix ) + “fidēl·is, -e” or pl. “fidēl·es, -ium” (“faithful”), thus meaning “unfaithful”. In recent years, the subject word seems mostly to be used in the U.S.A. as a substantive that refers to people who hold or reject certain religious beliefs.

Most correctly, a person who either: Note that observant Protestants or Orthodox are not infidels. Herein, it'll be left to theologians to decide whether a baptized person technically becomes an infidel after a genuine conversion to any of the latter 3 nonChristian beliefs.

There is a potentially surprising act that's permitted to the Christian faithful:
Not only is it not forbidden, but it is permissible and one might say obligatory to pray even publicly for infidel princes, in order that God may grant their subjects peace and prosperity; is more conformable to the tradition of the Church; thus Catholics of the different rites in the Ottoman Empire [before its extinction, would] pray for the sultan.[*]
Because the subject word is the religious term for nonChristians, being derived directly from the traditional Latin of Roman Catholicism, the word ought not be used as a label for nonMuslims as disparaged or persecuted from a Muslim perspective. Instead, a word in Arabic, transliterated as “kāfir”, or pl. “kuffār”, ought to be used, because Arabic is the religious language of Islam.[#]
[Note *: Auguste Boudinhon 1910: "Infidels". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8.

Note #: So argueth the webmaster, who is opposed to the loss of usefully distinctive meanings of words by persistent popular misuse. ]
Praying for the intercession of a saint is not a matter of praying to mortals--nor their statues-- thus is not placing dead men or women before God. A Catholic prayer is really through a saint, requesting the special assistance of someone who's already known to be in Heaven, and already known to be in divine favor, to present their mortal request to God.

Ponder, for a moment, sending an e-mail for ‘redress of grievances’ (Amendment I) to the President of the United States. One of zillions? What chances do you think you'd really have for any response-- never mind a favorable result--from the White House? But what if you have a long-time family friend now working in the White House? Might it not be more effective to send your e-mail via that friend instead?
The Arabian-invented religion whose native name is derived from the Semitic word root “Š-L-M in Arabic. Until recent decades, that religion was more commonly known in English by words derived from the name of its founder, commonly Anglicized as Mohammed, thus as “Mohammedanism” or “Mohammedism”. In the 21st century, a believer in, or adherent to, Islam is commonly referred to in English by the Anglicized Arabic words “Moslem” or “Muslim” (q.v.); other terms, e.g.: “Mohammedan”, have been used in earlier decades.

The original edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia provided a harsh closing summary of this religion:
In matters political, Islam is a system of despotism at home and aggression abroad. The Prophet commanded absolute submission to the imâm. In no case was the sword to be raised against him. The rights of non-Moslem subjects are of the vaguest and most limited kind, and a religious war is a sacred duty whenever there is a chance of success against the “Infidel”. Medieval and modern Mohammedan, especially Turkish [†], persecutions of both Jews and Christians are perhaps the best illustration of this fanatical religious and political spirit.[×]
It was written from the perspective of the traditional Catholic times of Pope St. Pius X, now more than a century ago. In the 21st century, it would be “politically incorrect” to publish such a harsh summary of the faith whose spokespeople insist is a “religion of peace”. There's evidence that even people professing Catholicism object, perhaps oblivious to their objections revealing them to be modernists.[#] 

It's become common in the 21st century for political leaders of Western sovereign countries, or religious leaders of Christian religions, to offer mollifying statements to placate believers in Islam, e.g.: “we all worship the same God”. But even brief analysis shows that such an œcumenical claim is not true of Islam; its god is the unified “Allah”. Mohammed strongly rejected belief in the Triune God [×]  professed in the creeds that define the Christian religions (whether the “One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church” of the Nicene Creed[*], or the various Protestant sects of modern times). Although some timid œcumenical Christians might be reässured by the stature of Jesus as a prophet being acknowledged by mention in the Koran of Islam, that's also the highest stature acknowledged for Him.[×]  That means that in Islam, and thus for all Muslims, Jesus the Nazarene is not the Christ, not the Son of God , and not one of the Divine Persons of the Holy Trinity. So Christians have no honest alternative to concluding that the god of Islam is not the God of Christianity.
[ Note †: “especially Turkish ”: The reported genocide of Armenian Christians by the Islamic government of the Ottoman Empire, a.k.a. the Turkish Empire (Istanbul as capital), and its successor state: the nominally secular Republic of Turkey (Ankara as capital), late in the 19th century, and early in the 20th century, is discussed on this Web site in the entry “Armenia”.

Note ×: “The system”. § II in Gabriel Oussani, 1911: "Mohammed and Mohammedanism". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note #: Cave !  The Catholic Encyclopedia article cited above (n. ‘×’), as hosted on the “New Advent” Web site, appears on line with an œcumenical preface that's not in the Catholic Encyclopedia as originally published:
To complement this article, which was taken from the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent recommends a prayerful reading of "Nostra Aetate" from the Second Vatican Council. [emphasis & links added]
The webmaster of this Web site makes no such recommendation; he had not realized that Paul VI, who promulgated “Nostra Aetate” as a declaration in A.D. 1965, had so much “Apostolic power”, in his role as “Vicar of Christ”, that he could overrule an instruction to the Apostles from the Christ Himself, when He first appeared to them after He had risen from the dead, which was directly quoted by 2 Evangelists, not only Matthew:
[...] teach ye all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world. [Mt. 28:19--20] [emphasis added]
But also Mark:
[...] Go ye into the whole world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved : but he that believeth not shall be condemned. [Mk. 16:15--16] [emphasis added]
Note *: As its formulæ were developed from the First Council of Nicaea, in A.D. 325, through the Council of Constantinople, in A.D. 381. ]


(No entries begin with ‘j’.)


Directly from Arabic, transliterated as “kāfir” (pl. “kuffār”), the religious term meaning “unbeliever(s)” in Islam.[*]

Most correctly, if not out of respect for religious terminology of Christianity that's derived directly from the Latin of Roman Catholicism, the word ought not be translated as “infidel ”.[#]
[Note *: Per the admittedly problematic Wikipedia Web page “Muslim and Non-Muslim relations regarding Kafir”. § 5 in <>.

Note #: So argueth the webmaster, who is opposed to the loss of usefully distinctive meanings of words by persistent popular misuse. Besides which, “kāfir” has only 2 syllables, and is unambiguous in English even if misspelled. Centuries ago, at least a few useful Arabic phrases were indirectly adopted as English words; 1 more Arabic word certainly shouldn't be a burden. ]
Kingship of the Christ
A traditional feast of Our Lord, assigned the dignity double of the 1st class, and also known as the “Feast of Christ the King”. This feast is relatively new, by the standards of traditional Catholicism: less than a century old, having been first celebrated in 1926. It had been established by the traditional Pope Pius XI (r. 1922--1939), in his encyclical known by its incipit  “Quas Primas” [*] in 1925, which was the 16th centennial of the Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325). His Holiness chose the date of the feast [#] so that it would fall on the Sunday immediately preceding the Feast of All Saints. He also directed that the subject feast would be the occasion for the dedication of mankind to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, which Pope Pius X (r. 1903--1914) had commanded to be renewed annually.
[Note *: “Quas primas post initum Pontificatum dedimus ad universos sacrorum Antistites Encyclicas Litteras, [....]”: literally: “What first <things>” (f. acc. pl. rel. pron., its antecedent presumably “Encyclicas Litteras”, followed by f. acc. pl. subst. adj. ≈ noun).  11 December 1925. No title, in the modern sense, appears above the original Latin body text; therefore, an English headline, e.g.: “On the Feast of Christ the King” (per the translated source linked above) was an addition by a translator or an editor.

Note #: Specifically “Quas Primas” § 28, 29, which identified the initial celebration of the feast as 31 October. That date did not fall on a Sunday until 1926. The corresponding specified Sunday for 1925 had been 25 October, a date already 1 ½ months past. But 11 December 1925 was the Friday after the 2nd Sunday of Advent, so the initial celebration translated as specified for “this year” was a reference to the liturgical year that began 29 November 1925, spanning the civil years 1925 & 1926.

Beware any “Catholic” liturgical calendar that shows the Feast of the Kingship of the Christ (a.k.a. the “Feast of Christ the King”) not falling in late October, but instead on the Last Sunday after Pentecost, in late November (e.g.: Sunday, 24 November in 2013). That later date identifies any such calendar as Novus Ordo: Compiled according to the Calendarium Romanum issued in 1969, thus 3 13 years after the conclusion of Vatican II. (Had it been able to be considered in isolation, it was a calendar change that might have a certain logical appeal. Cf. the gospels for the last and first Sundays of the liturgical year, i.e.: the Last Sunday after Pentecost and the First Sunday of Advent, each of whose subjects is the Second Coming of the Christ, albeit according to different evangelists [Mt. 24, Lk. 21]. Pius XI's special emphasis is exemplified by the gospel for the Kingship of the Christ, in which the Christ admits to Pontius Pilate: “I am a king” [Jn. 18]. But it would've been merely 1 among what finally turned out to be an overwelming Novus Ordo deluge of changes in the liturgical calendar and its cycle of readings.) ]
Summary:  The primary holy book of Islam, originally written entirely in Arabic, initially for an Arab audience.
(Its substantive entry has been moved 6 letters farther down on this “notions” Web page on this site; a link to that entry in its new place is at the side-header, i.e., the header immediately above, and to the left overall, of the colored background on which this entry appears.)


laity [ D R A F T ]
English collective noun for laypeople, from postclassical (or later) Latin “laic·us”, from Greek «λᾱός, -ου̑, -ὁ» (“lāós, -oû, -ho”), meaning “the people”, also “the common men” (as distinct from their leaders). Also in plural «λαοί» (“laoí”), meaning “the subjects of a prince”.

[....] articles from the Catholic Encyclopedia:
Latin Mass [ D R A F T ]
A widely used term that's applied nowadays to significantly different situations. Alternative or rephrased terms can sometimes clarify--but sometimes muddle--its real meaning.

The list below (in alphabetical order) is an initial effort at organizing more extensive discussion (elsewhere on this Web page) via links:
The challenge for traditional Catholics is not limited to finding a traditional Mass. For the Mass and its Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist to be valid, it must be offered by a (traditionally) ordained priest, who understands the words he's reading & speaking, as the result of having completed many years of formal training in Latin. Alas, when seeking a traditional “Latin Mass”, it's far more common to find a ceremony presided over by a merely installed “Catholic” presbyter, although that person may nonetheless follow uncritical colloquial English customs, and call himself a “priest”.
liberalism [ D R A F T ]
Please see the broader entry on “modernism” (below, with links).
liturgical calendar
Schedules on this Web site are compiled following the 4 parts of the year (literally “par·s, -t·is” (f.)), attributed to the ancient breviary (breviārium vetus (n.)), treating them herein as liturgical seasons [#]:
[Note #: Calculations of movable feasts on this Web site follow the extensive analysis of the date of Easter in “Frequently Asked Questions About Calendars”, by Claus Tøndering.

Note ÷: This traditional part straddles 2 civil-calendar years, so for presentation purposes, computation on this site subdivides it into 2 subparts that do not straddle civil years. Although admittedly an untraditional development, it does follow Classical Latin terminology for a different season: “aest·as, -at·is” (f.), meaning summer, thus:
  • hiemalis nova”: early--or the beginning of--liturgical winter. This subpart ends on the civil New Year's Eve (presumably because it is the penultimate day in the privileged Octave of Christmas, it is not observed as “the Vigil of the Circumcision”).
  • hiemalis exacta”: late--or the end of--liturgical winter. This subpart begins on the civil New Year's Day, i.q. the Feast of the Circumcision, i.q. the Octave Day of Christmas.

Note -: The author of this Web page is mystified by this tradition, which splits Lent into 2 parts of the ancient breviary: the initial 4 days of Lent in “Pars Hiëmālis”, from the latter 42 days of Lent in “Pars Verna”. If this part had begun just 1 Sunday earlier, thus with Quinquagesima Sunday (which might be thought of as “Shrove Sunday”), it would have included all of Lent, plus Shrovetide as a bonus: the Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, which since mediæval times have been religiously focused on confession of one's sins immediately before beginning the penitential self-deprivation of Lent. A Forty Hours Devotion was devised for Shrovetide in the 16th century, notably for Italy, and later granted a plenary indulgence (1747) by Pope Benedict XIV.

Note *: The author of this Web page is also mystified by this tradition. In the republican and imperial Roman calendar, the only day of any month whose name (i.e.: designation) always corresponded to the same number, according to modern sequential numbering of days in months, was the 1st day, designated the Kalends (Kalend·ae, -ārum). The Kalends was so important that the days in the last half of any month were designated as so many “days before the Kalends”. But there was never any date designated as so many “days after the Kalends”. The tradition seems unrelated to the following part of the ancient breviary, e.g., it does not synchronize “Pars Autumnālis” with “Pars Hiëmālis” to provide a constant number of Sundays before Advent (e.g.: 12 in 2010, 11 in 2011, 13 in 2012, exclusive).

Note ×: There can never be more than 28 Sundays after Pentecost. ]
Liturgy of the Hours
Contrary to what would seem to be a reasonable & logical guess, this work is not merely a new English name nor an alternative title for a translation into English of the Divine Office. In fact, the Liturgy of the Hours is not even that; it's not a traditional Catholic work at all. It's actually “even more” modernist than the Novus Ordo Missae, according to “FAQ 5: What traditional books do you recommend?” at the Traditio Network.


(pl. “Marranos”)  Directly from Spanish: A falsely professed convert (i.e.: pseudoconvert) from Judaism to Catholicism.[*]
[Note *: “ The Inquisition in Spain”. § II(B) in Joseph Blötzer 1910: "Inquisition". Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 8. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). ]
Mass of 1962
Mass celebrated according to what the NewVatican's Congregation for Divine Worship (1984, translated) called the “Roman Missal according to the 1962 edition”, which was the last Missale Romanum  issued before Vatican II. This Mass, now considered a Semitraditional Mass, incorporated significant modernist changes that were approved by Pope John XXIII (although reportedly primarily out of respect for Pius XII, who had initiated the process), plus earlier changes, notably the modifications in 1956 to services for Holy Week (never approved in forma specifica by Pius XII). Loosely speaking, it represented a halfway-point in the series of changes that gradually transformed the fully traditional Mass (often labelled the Tridentine Mass) into the modernist vernacular-language Novus Ordo Missae imposed on the modernist Catholic Church following Vatican II.

This Mass was the focus of the motu proprioEcclesia Dei” issued by Pope John Paul II (1988)[+].
[Note +: See the English translation provided by the Traditio Network. ]
Mass of 1962+
In the 21st century, the NewVatican insists that the ‘Mass of 1962’ is no longer approved to be offered by Roman Catholic dioceses. What the NewVatican does allow its dioceses to offer, at the discretion of their pastors or rectors of religious communities, or upon refusal, with appeal to the bishops or community superiors, is what Pope Benedict XVI has dubbed the “Extraördinary Rite”. It diverges from the ‘Mass of 1962’ as the result of additional changes in the 21st century (2007, 2008) to move it closer to the Novus Ordo service, and away from the actual ‘Mass of 1962’. According to the Instruction Universae Ecclesiae issued by Pope Benedict XVI (13 May 2011), this Mass will be further modified to incorporate a liturgical calendar either hybridized with--or replaced by--the Novus Ordo calendar.
Mass of Pope John XXIII
In theory, the NewVatican label for the ‘Mass of 1962’, but in practice, the “Extraördinary Rite[....]
Mass of Pope Paul VI
Mass celebrated according to what the NewVatican's Congregation for Divine Worship (1984, translated) called the “Roman Missal promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1970”: It's the original Novus Ordo Missae, but might also include the revision in 1975 during his papacy. Most strictly speaking, it would exclude the additional modernist changes in revisions issued after his papacy (e.g.: 2002, 2007, 2008, 2012, ...).
Mass of Pope Pius V or Rite of Pope Pius V
Actually the Fully Traditional Mass a.k.a. the Tridentine Mass. Devising this additional term, from the name of the pope who approved this standardization of the Mass, seems useful only if one is trying fight tradition with obfuscation, by creating the impression that Masses should be named after popes according to a theory that each pope is entitled as Pontifex Maximus to invent his own Mass. [....]
Anglicization of the nonnative Greek “Μεσσίας” or “Μεσείας”, as imported and Græcized (or Hellenized) from Aramaic & Hebrew, meaning “anointed one”. Specifically, the Aramaic “meshihaמְשִּׁיהָא»), and the Hebrew “mashiahחַמָּשִׁיהַ»). The Anglicized spelling herein is found, e.g., in John 1:41, 4:25 [CC-RV ]. The native-Greek word is Anglicized as Christ.
‘Modern’ or radical ideas and philosophies that evoked concern from the Church hierarchy, notably Popes Gregory XVI, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, and Pius XI. The writings of those popes, advocated as antidotes, are enumerated under antimodernism.

In the mid-&-late-18th century, the modernist ideas and philosophies were exemplified by the social changes of the bloody French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, notably the hostility toward the Catholic clergy. In the mid-19th century, they appeared in revolutions that spread across Europe, and found effective expression in the Communist Manifesto, by Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels, which led to both ‘The International Workingmen's Association’ (1864), and Das Kapital volume 1, by Marx (1867). Although the IWA had failed after a dozen years, in about as many more years, the ‘New International’ appeared in Paris (1889). In the early-20th century, the U.S.A. and the major countries of Western Europe had active socialist political parties, sometimes under milder names, e.g.: “Labour Party”.

[....] which preceded the radical ideas or implementation within living memory from the 20th century.

See, e.g., contemporary encyclopedic articles from the perspective of the traditional times of Pius X, a century ago (i.e.: links into the Catholic Encyclopedia , in alphabetical order):
The remedial writings of the antimodernist popes might've remained of interest mostly for the details of what now might've been unremarkable Roman orthodoxy. Except that after the opening of Vatican II, alas, the Church became swamped by modernism that would paradoxically--if not perversely--receive official sanction from a modernist line of successors of St. Peter, and have concepts & ideas of modernism elaborated in documents issued from the Vatican.
Literally, anyone who adheres to the ideas or philosophies known collectively as modernism.

In the context of this Web-site, it typically refers to theologians, members of the Church hierarchy, or other ecclesiastical persons, who not only hold, but typically also promote, these ideas or philosophies.

Foremost among the modernist popes is Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini), who reöpened Vatican II (29 Sep. 1963). Even though papal custom would've allowed him to abandon it, incomplete though it was, after it was closed by the death of his predecesor who'd summoned it. Paul also signed all of the Council's decrees (John XXIII signed none), and approved the resulting Novus Ordo Missae.
(pl. “Moriscos”)  Directly from Spanish: A professed convert (i.e.: pseudoconvert) from Islam (a.k.a. Mohammedanism or Mohammedism) to Catholicism, who continues to believe in Islam, and to the extent possible, covertly practice it.[#]

The approximately opposite religious term, although overly broad, is the Arabic word transliterated as “munāfiq” (overly broad because the word seems not to limit the nonIslamic covert belief to Christianity).
[Note #: “ The Inquisition in Spain”. § II(B) in Joseph Blötzer 1910: "Inquisition". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). ]
Moslem | Muslim
A believer in, or an adherent of, the Arabian-invented religion whose native name “Islam” (q.v.) is derived from the Semitic word root “Š-L-M in Arabic. Until recent decades, such a person was most commonly known in English as a “Moslem”, although now the alternative spelling “Muslim” seems to prevail. Because of idiosyncracies of the notation for vowels in written Arabic, both are considered correct as transliterated spellings. The quaint-sounding “Mussulman” is an equivalent term. In earlier decades, such a person was also commonly known in English by words derived from the name of its founder, Anglicized as Mohammed, thus as a “Mohammedan”.[×]

In the languages of predominately Christian Western Europe, many centuries passed before the words above were typically used, whether to identify an Islamized ethnic group or their military forces. Instead, the word “Saracen” prevailed until the 12th century in mediæval Latin, and the 16th century in the developing vernaculars.[#]

Contrary to colloquial usage in English, the native term for the opposite to a Muslim, in the sense of a person who is not a believer in, nor an adherent of Islam, is notinfidel” (which is derived from Latin); but instead, it's the Arabic word transliterated as “kāfir” (plural “kuffār”).

After the Catholic Monarchs Fernando y Ysabella completed the Reconquista of Spain, residents of that country who were adherents of Islam, and evaded the new legal mandate to convert to Catholicism by fraudulently claiming to have done so (thus, a pseudoconvert), were called Moriscos.
[Note ×: Gabriel Oussani, 1911: "Mohammed and Mohammedanism". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note #: <http: //>. Because this is an excellent example of a subject whose objectivity is vulnerable to compromise in favor of ‘political correctness’ at Wikipedia, confirmation by source whose objectivity evokes less debate, and inspires more confidence, would be highly desirable.

Cave !  Your great-grandpa's Mohammedans are not a mere memory from the past of a century ago; please ponder also the very modern phenomenon dubbed “Christophobia”. ]
A believer in, or an adherent of, the Arabian-invented religion whose native name “Islam” (q.v.) is derived from the Semitic word root “Š-L-M in Arabic. Within the most recent century, such a person was most commonly known in English as a “Moslem”, although more recently, the alternative spelling “Muslim” seems to prevail (q.v.).

In the languages of predominately Christian Western Europe, many centuries passed before the words above were typically used, whether to identify an Islamized ethnic group or their military forces. Instead, the word “Saracen” prevailed until the 12th century in mediæval Latin, and the 16th century in the developing vernaculars.[#]
[Note #: <http: //>. Because this is an excellent example of a subject whose objectivity is vulnerable to compromise in favor of ‘political correctness’ at Wikipedia, confirmation by source whose objectivity evokes less debate, and inspires more confidence, would be highly desirable. ]
motu proprio
Latin “mōt·us, -ūs” (m.) and “propri·us | -a | -um”. The initial word, transferred from its literal meaning of physical motion (being derived from “mov·eo, -ere ”: “to move”), into the figurative or metaphorical motion expressible as “initiative” or “inspiration”). The final word can be broadly translated as “particular” or even “peculiar” (e.g.: applying to a specific person). Combined in what is apparently the Latin ablative of agent, it means “by one's own initiative” (disqualifying previously mentioned “inspiration” for implying an external influence).[*]

In the context of Roman Catholic administration, a rescript from the pope (or conceivably, a bishop), expressing his personal decision in writing, as a response to a request from an individual.[*]
[Note *: Andrew MacErlean 1911: “Motu Proprio”. Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 10. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). Cf. the translation of the subject Latin phrase, in this source, as “of his own accord”. ]
Directly from Arabic, transliterated as “munāfiq” (pl. “munāfiqūn”), the religious term conventionally translated as “hypocrite”, but meaning a person who observes overt practices of Islam despite being an “unbeliever” [*] (although the word seems not to imply a specific nonIslamic covert belief).

The more narrowly opposite religious term is the Spanish word “Morisco”, which indicates Islam as the covert belief.
[Note *: <http: //>. Because this is an excellent example of a subject whose objectivity is vulnerable to compromise in favor of ‘political correctness’ at Wikipedia, confirmation by source whose objectivity evokes less debate, and inspires more confidence, would be highly desirable. ]


Nazarene [ D R A F T ]
14th letter in Arabic, named nūn’, notorious in the 21st century for use of its isolated form (above) by the militant Sunni “Islamic State” as their predatory graffiti, to mark Christian property that they've identified for seizure. It's the initial letter of “Nasrani”: an Arabic word (presumably via Greek «Ναζωραιος »), literally meaning “Nazarene”--thus Christian.
A native or resident of the ancient town Nazareth (q.v.) in inland Galilee.

It was the hometown not only of the Blessed Virgin Mary at the time of the Annunciation, but also of her spouse St. Joseph. After their return from Egypt (ca. 4 B.C.), it was St. Joseph's house into which they settled with Jesus, and where the Holy Family continued to live from His childhood until the beginning of His adult public life (ca. A.D. 30). So it was that “He shall be called a Nazarene” [Mt. 2:23][†].

Mount Thabor (i.q. Tabor), a landmark with a very distinctive profile about 5 mi. to the S.E. of Nazareth, is the traditional site of the Transfiguration of the Christ [Mt. 17:1--2][+]  (ca. A.D. 32).

[Note †: James F. Driscoll 1911: "Nazarene". Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 10. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note #: Barnabas Meistermann 1911: "Nazareth". Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 10. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <>. (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note *: "Palestine in the time of Christ" (map), N.T.-p. 332; "Nazareth" (photo), N.T.-p. 315; and "Mount of the Transfiguration" (photo), N.T.-p. 319. St. Joseph (Textbook) Edition of the Holy Bible.

Note +: Barnabas Meistermann 1912: "Mount Thabor". Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 14. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). ]
Prefix imported to English from the Greek adjective “νέος”, as a more learned prefix meaning “new” (e.g.: “neoconservative”). Used by some traditional Catholics for the same distinction of modernism vs. tradition made by “New-”.
Prefix used by some traditional Roman Catholics to distinguish the institutions, offices, sacraments, inventions, &c. of the modernist Church of Vatican II, which still claims to be Roman Catholic, and is in possession of the real estate of Vatican City, from the traditional Roman Catholic “Faith of our Fathers”. It seems likely that this terminology arose from eagerness among traditional Catholics to distance themselves and their traditional faith from the continual--and rarely remedied--modern scandals in the modernist “Catholic” Church of the vernacular-language Novus Ordo Missae.

As a prefix, “New-” has the same meaning as the English adjective Conciliar, or the Latin phrase Novus Ordo. But what the single-syllable prefix lacks in ostentatious erudition, it makes up in its straightforward Anglosaxon punch. So it is that in traditional sources, one might read, e.g., of members of the NewChurch assembling for the NewMass, according to repeated changes mandated by NewVatican a.k.a. NewRome, as presided over by [the] NewPope.
Nihil Obstat
Latin for “Nothing stands in the way”.  1 of 2 formal approvals required from the Roman Catholic clergy before a document is allowed to be printed in the name of the Church. [....] The other is the Imprimatur.
Novus Ordo
Collective term for the modernist changes resulting principally from Vatican II, including:
Vatican modernists did not wait for Vatican II, nor even for “The Sixties” and the social changes that came with that decade; but in fact, they began issuing their changes from the Vatican in the 1950s (e.g., in 1956: changes to the liturgy for Holy Week). The early process of change was akin to that known to Floridans for cooking lobster (locally a.k.a. “crawfish”): Place a live lobster in a kettle of lukewarm water, then slowly raise the temperature. The process fully cooks the lobster for human consumption, but it's so gradual it never alarms the lobster into any attempt to flee the kettle.
Novus Ordo Calendarium Romanum
Novus Ordo liturgical calendar, over-simplified according to the “General norms for the liturgical year and the calendar”, issued by the Sacred Congregation of Rites (21 Mar. 1969)[#], e.g.:
In keeping with the Novus Ordo process of continual change, feast days have been assigned to recently canonized saints and beatified religious (although they do not appear to be mandated yet by the Roman Calendar), e.g.: Any Web-site promoting these days as feasts would conclusively reveal itself to be Novus Ordo. People who are merely beatified are reportedly ineligible for the General Roman Calendar, and their veneration is reportedly required to be confined to the locales of the public or religious life of each, e.g.: Poland and Rome for “Blessèd” Card. Wojtyła-J.P. II.

In 2010, e.g., according to the traditional liturgical calendar, there are only 34 ferial days (10.9% of 313 nonSundays), but in the Novus Ordo liturgical calendar [*], there are 132 weekdays (42.2% of 313 nonSundays), including Advent, Lent, and the 2nd through the 7th “Week(s) of Easter”.
[Note #: Considering just the birthdays of the 7 members of the immediate family of the author of this Web page, according to the Novus Ordo liturgical calendar for 2010 [*]:
  • 5 traditional saints' feasts were eliminated, i.e.: replaced by the weekday of a ‘Week of Ordinary Time’;
  • 1 traditional martyred duo's feast was eliminated , and replaced by that of a traditional saint moved from his traditional date, making the traditional date he was moved from into a weekday of a ‘Week of Ordinary Time’;
  • 1 traditional saint's feast was retained at her traditional date in the calendar.

The author of this Web page wonders whether outright elimination of the feast days of numerous saints was an exercise in pandering to Protestants, rationalized to Catholics as a noble concession for the sake of ecumenism? Early in their Revolt, Protestants dismissed the concept of the intercession of saints.

Note *: The Novus Ordo liturgical calendar used as basis for the commentary herein is the one available at RomCal Web site. The traditional Catholic liturgical calendar used herein is one compiled experimentally by the author of this Web page, as verified by the authoritative calendar provided by the Traditio Network. ]
Novus Ordo Missae
The Novus Ordo Missae, literally, in English, the “New Order of the Mass” (a.k.a. ‘NewMass’), one of the principal modernist consequences of Vatican II. It was released on 3 April 1969. In that year, the date was not only Maundy Thursday, i.q. Holy Thursday, for Christians, but its daylight hours were also the conclusion of Passover for Jews.

That same year, Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani: Pro Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and Antonio Cardinal Bacci: member of the Congregations for Religious, Causes of Saints, and Catholic Education, plus additional Roman theologians, analyzed the modernist changes in the Mass: “A short critical study of the New Order of Mass”. [#] It was sent principally to Pope Paul VI, but it became much more widely distributed, and known informally as “The Ottaviani intervention”. [#] This document revealed that the result would be invalid, in effect, a Protestant service. Although many readers might assume that the issue was that the “New Order of Mass” was no longer performed in Latin, the criticism applied, in fact,even to its original Latin form, from which the local vernacular-language versions were translated.

Revisions were released in 1970, 1975, and 2002, with another revision scheduled for release and mandated use in 2011. Some people who identify themselves as “traditional Catholic”, but have continued to “go with the flow” of the Novus Ordo Church, have repeatedly expressed hope-- “Kýrie, eléison! ”-- for a “reform of the reform” that would restore their confidence in the “New Order of Mass”. Maybe even-- “Christe, eléison! ”-- restore it to unquestionable validity. Nevertheless, none of those revisions had any such effects, nor did they even seem to be among their intended purposes.

In 1999, the NewVatican issued Protocol 1411, which requires all Roman Catholic presbyters or genuine priests in a diocese to celebrate the ‘NewMass’ whenever its bishop directs them to do so. This applies even to those who customarily celebrate a Latin Mass under the purported protection of the papal motu proprioSummorum Pontificum” (2007).
[Note #: Links are to a version in English at the Traditio Network. Traditio's separate “FAQ 3”: “Should I ever attend the ‘New Mass’ and ‘New Sacraments’?”, begins with a brief to-the-point section: “Five practical rules for dealing with the New Order Sect”. ]


Period of 8 days associated with the most important feasts of the traditional Church. From Latin “octava, -æ” (f.), a ‘substantive’ meaning “eighth thing”, especially signifying an hour or a day. The feast on which the octave is based is itself counted as day 1 of 8; so day 8 of 8: “In Octavā [...], known as the ‘octave day’ (literally ‘on the octave’), will be the same day of the week as the feast that begins the octave. The days between the feast and its ‘octave day’ are “Infra Octavam [...]”, known as (days) ‘within the octave’ (lit. ‘below|under the octave’), or perhaps considering its numeric aspect: ‘less than the eighth (day)’.

An ‘octave day’ is traditionally ranked as a ‘double’, and days ‘within the octave’ are ranked merely as ‘semidouble’ (both corresponding to the semitraditional rank III of 1960). Nonetheless, within and on the Octaves of Epiphany, Easter, and Pentecost, no other feasts are traditionally allowed to be celebrated, regardless of their rank.
Old Catholic
Not the same as traditional Roman Catholic.

Sect that rejects the infallibility of the pope, stimulated by the excommunication of Fr. Ignatz von Döllinger on 18 Apr. 1871 for rejecting papal infallibility, contrary to dogma formalized in the previous year by what was then the one-and-only Vatican Council.
[See also the entry “Old Catholic” in “FAQ 6: “What do these traditional terms mean?”, provided by the Traditio Network. ]
ordinary [ D R A F T ]
[Note +: Auguste Boudinhon 1911: “Ordinary (Latin ordinarius, i. e., judex)”. Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 11. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note £: (W.C. [William Cox] Cochran 1888) Robert A. Mace (revised) 1956: Cochran's Law Lexicon: Pronouncing Edition, 4th Edn., p. 224.  W.H. Anderson Co.: Cincinnati [Ohio]. viii+412 pp.  The New Pronouncing Edition, as “Revised and Enlarged [...] by Howard L. Bevis”, apparently corresponds to the 3rd Edn. (1924); see, e.g., the entry “Cochran, William Cox 1848--1936” at the Tarlton Law Library of the Univ. of Texas School of Law.

Note *: Johannes Baptist Sägmüller 1910: “Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction”. Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 8. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note **: One translation into English of Classical Latinpropri·us | -a | -um”. It's noteworthy in the modern Church in its ablative singular “proprio”.
Ordinary Time
Novus Ordo over-simplification of its liturgical calendar, cutting traditional bonds between each of 1 penitential season and 2 feasts (on the one hand), and their respective traditional Sundays & weeks -before or -after (on the other hand), homogenizing them into ‘Sunday(s) of Ordinary Time’ that introduce ‘Week(s) of Ordinary Time’.

Its result was to eliminate the Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima traditional prelude to Lent, and to deëmphasize the Feasts of the Epiphany and Pentecost, by assimilating their traditional ‘Sunday(s) after’, which occupy approximately half the Sundays of the traditional liturgical year.

According to the traditional liturgical calendar, e.g., in 2010: the Epiphany is celebrated on a Wednesday, but on 6 Jan. regardless of its day of the week, then come the 1st to 3rd Sundays after Epiphany, followed by Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima Sundays, then Quadragesima: the 1st Sunday of Lent; 13 Sundays later, Pentecost is celebrated, followed by Trinity Sunday: the 1st Sunday after Pentecost, through the 26th Sunday after Pentecost, then the 1st Sunday of Advent.

According to the Novus Ordo liturgical calendar, e.g., in 2010: the Solemnity of the Epiphany is celebrated on 3 Jan.: a Sunday regardless of its date in that month, followed by the de facto 1st ‘Sunday of Ordinary Time’, celebrated as the “Feast of the Baptism of the Lord”, followed by the 2nd through the 6th ‘Sundays of Ordinary Time’, then the 1st Sunday of Lent; 13 Sundays later, despite an absent 7th ‘Sunday of Ordinary Time’, the de facto 8th ‘Sunday of Ordinary Time’ is celebrated as the “Solemnity of Pentecost”, followed by the 9th ‘Sunday of Ordinary Time’ through the de facto 34th ‘Sunday of Ordinary Time’, celebrated as the “Solemnity of Christ the King”, then the 1st Sunday of Advent. The 34 ‘Sundays of Ordinary Time’ in 2010 are 65.4% of the 52 Sundays total in the year; there are 132 weekdays, including Advent, Lent, and the 2nd through the 7th “Week of Easter”.
ordination [ D R A F T ]
Traditional Sacrament of Holy Orders, which confers the sacred authority [1 Tim. 4:14] of the Roman Catholic priesthood. It is documented in the New Testament as bestowed by the Christ on His Apostles (notably Peter at their head [Jn. 16:17--19]): [....] The sacrament also bestows the sanctifying grace of the priesthood [1 Tm. 4:14; 2 Tm. 1:6--7], through the Apostles to their disciples & successors, by the formal laying of hands [Acts 6:6; 13:3].

The corresponding Novus Ordo ritual, redesignated as ‘installation’ less than 3 years after the conclusion of Vatican II, is criticized by traditional Catholics for omissions that fail to confer the sacred authority of the priesthood, thus invalidating sacraments, and otherwise preventing God's sanctifying grace from being bestowed. The changes were dictated in the New Ordinal, whose use was optional immediately after being promulgated on 15 August 1968, but did not become mandatory until 6 April 1969 (Easter Sunday).

This change becomes especially troubling when reading that the former Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio “was ordained to the priesthood on December 13, 1969” (e.g., according to Wikipedia). The date indicates that he would not really have been ‘ordained’, but merely ‘installed’.
Chronologically organized book--in effect, a liturgical calendar in heavily abbreviated prose-- specifying, for each day of the year, the prayers of the ‘Office’, and the details of the Mass, including the feasts and commemorations, with the liturgical colors for each. [....]

[For many of its terms, please see the link at ‘breviary’.]


Latinization, as “parœcia” or “parochia”, of Greek «παρ·οικία», -ἡ», meaning a “neighboring dwelling”, from «πάροικος, -ον» («παρά» + «οἰκέω»), adj. meaning “dwelling near-by”, i.e.: “neighboring”.

The bottom of 3 hierarchical levels of territorial organization within the hierarchy of the Church. Being at the bottom of 3 levels, each parish that's assigned an exclusive territory is combined with other, typically contiguous, parishes, into a diocese.

According to the subject article in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1911)[*]:
The exclusive attribution of a territory to a parish and its pastor is not absolutely necessary; certain parishes coexist with others in the same territory, the respective parishes being distinguished by rite or nationality, e.g. in the Orient or in large American cities. There are even rare instances of parishes formed solely of families, without regard to territory. [Emphasis added.]
The territorial exceptions of Catholic parishes “distinguished by rite” might be even more relevant in the years following Vatican II, during which the majority of bishops have become hostile to celebration of a Latin Mass of any vintage in their dioceses, and in which the Vatican insists that a priest must not say a Latin Mass of any vintage without permission granted by either a motu proprio or a pontifical indult.

Each parish is in the care of a specific priest, who in the U.S.A. is usually called a pastor.
[Note *: Auguste Boudinhon & William Fanning 1911: “Parish (Latin parœcia, parochia [...])”. Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 11. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //>.
Pasch (a.k.a. Passover) [ D R A F T ]
The Jewish religious festival more commonly known in English as the Passover. Greek «Πάσχα, [¿]το»[#] (otherwise indeclinable) meaning the Passover, from Aramaicpascha” (transliterated), the latter having the same meaning as Hebrew pesaħ” (more commonly “pesakh”) , derived from « פסח », meaning “to pass by” or “to spare”. The Vulgate uses both the postclassical Latin “Phase” (apparently indeclinably), plus the classical verb “trans·eō, -īre, -īvī, -it·um” and the derived noun “transit·us, -ūs” (m.) [Ex. 12:11--13,21,23,27,43,48]. In Greek, the subject word can also mean the “paschal lamb”.

The festival was celebrated on the 15th day of the moon, in the month of the wheat barley harvest [*], which depended on ad hoc synchonization of the Jewish lunar month with the largely neglected solar cycle. The patriarch of the Sanhedrin had the traditional authority, as chairman of a 3-man court for which he chose 2 of his colleagues, on the 29th day of each month, during the period of the Second Temple, to delay the Passover festival by a month, depending on observation of the sun relative to the equinox, or the progress of the grain crop. It was barley that was harvested in April (Nisan). Wheat, which was the preferred breadstuff, had been sown in late autumn, but would be harvested after barley, and after the spring rains--needed to fill out the grains in the ears-- had tapered off, varying around Biblical Palestine from late April through early June (Siwan).
[Note #: Having entered Greek directly from Aramaic, it is not derived from the Greek verb «πάσχω» (“páschō”) meaning “to suffer”, no matter how eager anyone might be to compose sermons based on presuming such a relationship. Similarly, “Phase” might be unrelated to Neolatin “Phas·is, -is[?]” (presumably i-stem 3rd declension), from Greek «φάσις» (“phásis”) meaning “appearance”.

Note *: Catholic scholarship connects Passover as coïnciding with the barley harvest, and Pentecost as coïnciding with the wheat harvest [Nm. 28:26 n. in St. Joseph (Textbook) Edition of the Holy Bible]. Details of the festival are given in the Catholic Encyclopedia article “Pasch or Passover”, and in relevant Jewish Encyclopedia articles “Passover”, “Calendar”, “Calendar, history of”, and “Agriculture”. The Catholic Encyclopedia article and the corresponding Jewish Encyclopedia articles (linked above) [need to revise per J.E. articles cited] regrettably failed to mention the crucial relationship between sunset and numbering of days in the Jewish calendar, thus confusing the journalistic ‘when?’ of the festival's events for readers who use the midnight-based modern Western calendar. ]
Paschal Full Moon
The 1 full moon each year that immediately precedes Easter. By ancient custom, notably the Jewish religion during the earthly life of Jesus the Christ, the days of a lunar month were counted beginning with the new moon, then a term applied only to the first visible crescent moon [*], which those Jews reckoned as the 1st day of the moon. The full moon was the moon on whatever day was counted as the 14th. Celebration of their Passover would begin on whatever day was counted as the 15th.[+] 

The Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325) adopted the (same) definition of full moon (sometimes referred to herein as an ecclesiastical full moon), to be used in the Christian calendar. That council also specified that the Paschal Full Moon full moon would be the 1st one on or after the ecclesiastical Vernal Equinox, and that Easter each year would be the 1st Sunday after that full moon (free from any & all provisions that could cause ad hoc delays[+]). So by definition, the Paschal Full Moon (always) occurs during Holy Week.

N.b.: The dates of this ‘full moon’ and the ‘Vernal Equinox’ it depends upon are actually the result of mathematical calculations derived from the cycles of the moon & sun as they were understood in the 16th century. The ‘full moon’ date may be different by 1--2 days from the full moon actually observed in the night sky.
[Note *: In particular, the new moon was not the completely dark moon of modern secular terminology. However, computerists might quickly realize that the dark moon could be reckoned as the “zeroth day” of the moon: A “day 0” that can be numerically convenient for various calculations.

Note +: Ancient Jewish custom allowed for ad hoc---but official--delay to the date of Passover; see its entry as combined with “Pasch” (above on this page). ]
Paschal Precept [*] [ D R A F T ]
One of the Precepts or Chief Commandments of the Church, it's the more formal name for what's more commonly & informally called Easter Duty [#]. More narrowly defined, the Paschal Precept is the traditional religious obligation that every Roman Catholic who has attained the age of reason (must) receive Holy Communion in her|his parish church, at least once during Paschaltide.

As a religious obligation, the precept itself can be traced back to distant centuries of writings by Catholic clergy, at least as far back as the 4th century, but it continued to be developed by influential saints into an explicit list of precepts binding all Roman Catholics. For the last few centuries, the Paschal Precept has been mandated among the Precepts of the Church or Chief Commandments of the Church (q.v.):
More broadly defined, the Paschal Precept also includes an annual Confession, as can be inferred from the “Third Precept” (§-Q. 27--34) of the Catechism of Pope Saint Pius X, which combines the obligations of annual Confession and annual Holy Communion in a single precept. Even so, “Paschal time”, as the liturgical season for receiving the annual Holy Communion, is phrased as a requirement, whereas Lent, as the liturgical season for making the annual Confession, is phrased only as a recommendation.
[Note *: This more formal term is not capitalized in the Catholic Encyclopedia, in which it seems that only 2 articles mention it.

Note #: Readers following the external links above, to on-line copies of 3 traditional catechisms, might notice that the phrase “Easter Duty” does not appear among the text of the Precepts, nor the Chief Commandments, of the Church. The phrase seems to be more informal than the typical Catholic realizes. That informality might explain why Web searches for “Easter Duty” (even as a ‘quoted’ phrase) are relatively unsuccessful--surprisingly so-- at locating authoritative sources.

Cave !  If a search finds a document with 4-digit-numbered paragraphs, esp. beginning with “2” for this topic (i.e.: 2042), then the modernist-revised catechism for the Novus Ordo is what it's found. ]
Cf. “catechism” and “Precepts of the Church”.
Also “Paschal Tide ”. From “Pasch” + O.E. & M.E. “tīd”, the latter meaning, i.a.: “time”. An ambiguous liturgical season following Easter. Consulting the Catholic Encyclopedia article “Paschal Tide” provides multiple definitions:
Only the latter definition has practical consequences for the religious obligations of traditional lay Catholics, so it warrants further discussion: The Canonical Paschal Tide is the period in the liturgical calendar that's allowed by the Church for the faithful to satisfy their obligations known as the Paschal Precept (i.q. Easter Duty). That period has not only changed over the centuries, but also remains different among various lands.[#]

Pope Eugene IV (s. 1431--1447) limited the canonical period to only 2 weeks: Palm Sunday through Low Sunday (1440). The same period was specified 2 centuries later in the Douay Catechism. But in later years, the canonical period tended to increase, quite substantially, even in the established civilizations of Europe.

What about the church-deficient and road-deficient frontier lands of colonial or postrevolutionary North America? The Douay Catechism, with its 2-week canonical period unchanged, was approved for New England by the Bishop Benedict of Boston (1833), as consistent with a catechism edition from Dublin (1820) that was already in use. However, the First Provincial Council of Baltimore (1829) had already sent a petition to Rome, requesting an official extension to the Canonical Paschal Tide. It was Pope Pius VIII (s. 1829--1830) who formally granted it, during his 20-month papacy. Thus, Roman Catholics in the then-24 States of the U.S.A. and its various territories & possessions [†], plus those in English-loyalist Canada [‡], were kindly granted the much greater time appropriate to their wild & raw lands: 99 days (more than 3 months) from the 1st Sunday in Lent through Holy Trinity Sunday (i.e.: the 8th Sunday after Easter, which is also the 1st Sunday after Pentecost, and the octave day of Pentecost). This is most plainly documented for traditional U.S. and Canadian Catholics in Q. 401 under Lesson 36 in the [The Explanation of the] Baltimore Catechism (1891), for which “in this country” means the U.S.A.  (although the identical time period applies in Canada).
[Note #: One consequence is that Catholics in the U.S.A. or Canada should be wary of asking visiting foreign priests--except Canadian-- about the specific dates of the Canonical Paschal Tide. Dates familiar to foreign priests, unchanged from their childhood through ordination in their native lands (e.g.: England, Germany, or Ireland), provide either less time or more time than is allowed in the U.S.A.

Note †: The Adams-Onís Treaty, which sold West & East Florida to the U.S.A., had been signed by Spain only a decade earlier (1819). Statehood for Florida (as 27th) was still a decade-and-a-half in the future (1845).

Note ‡: Kings George IV (r. 1820--1830), then William IV (r. 1830--1837), props. Their father: King George III, during whose reign 13 North American colonies won their independence from England, had died only 10 years earlier (1820). ]
From Latin “past·or, -ōris” (m.), meaning a “shepherd”.

The priest primarily responsible for the care of the souls of the faithful in any specific parish. Although the parish constitutes a territory, a pastor is not an ordinary. That's because what a pastor exercises is “paternal authority” in private matters, not actual jurisdiction in the ecclesiastical sense.
pastoral [ D R A F T ]
Latin adjective “pastōrāl·is, -e”, from “past·or, -ōris” (m.), meaning a “shepherd”.

Cf. ‘dogma’. [....] [†]
[Note &dagger: Perhaps readers should be comforted that the author of this Web page would not simply leap into this entry, which becomes at least potentially problematic when distinguishing the authority of various councils of the Church. ]
Petrus Romanus
The last pope of the Catholic Church, according to a terse & ambiguous list of predicted future popes in a prophecy attributed to the 12th-century Irish Archbishop St. Malachy O'Morgair.[‡]

His prophecy was recorded in a manuscript that resulted from a vision outside Rome, during a visit (1139) to report on the status of Ireland to the pope (Innocent II). St. Malachy outlined a succession of 112 popes, to end in the time of the otherwise unidentified Petrus Romanus. The prophecy does not identify them by their given or papal names, but by mottos that are open to interpretation & debate.

The manuscript is described above as merely “attributed”, because of the persistent suspicion of forgery. It was allegedly discovered in the Vatican archives in 1590, after remaining unnoticed for 4½ centuries. Detailed review in the late 20th century-- if not centuries earlier-- indicates that the mottos identifying the popes between the beginning of the list and 1590 are much more easily recognized (e.g.: via family coats of arms), than the mottos for the popes between 1590 and the end of the list, which can be really ambiguous. A forger in 1590 would already have 4½ centuries of papal history  from which to contrive 4½ centuries of past  “prophecy”, and build a reputation for “amazing accuracy”.

What's the significance of the prophesied name?
The prophecy itself, as published in Latin more than 4 centuries ago [#]:
In  pſecutione. extrema [^] S.R.E. ſedebit.

Petrus Romanus, qui paſcet oues in multis tribulationibus: quibus tranſactis [†] ciuitas ſepticollis diruetur & Iudex tremēdus iudicabit populum ſuum. Finis.
The text above, if viewed instead in the format in which it'd been printed 4 centuries ago, concludes the rightmost of 3 columns, with a hanging indent (1-em width) beginning each of the sequences of words that are shown above as separated by a blank line, but published translations treat that odd formatting as irrelevant. The page displays mediævalist characteristics of movable type, notably S.R.E.” is a conventional abbreviation for “Sacr- Roman- Ecclesi-”, meaning the Holy Roman (Catholic) Church. Since antiquity, it's Rome that's been known as the City of 7 Hills; thus, it's the Holy See that the conclusion of the prophecy sets apart for a grim future:
At the final [^] perprosecution of the Holy Roman Church, (there) will sit (as pope) Peter the Roman, who tends (the) sheep in many tribulations; by whose final stroke [†], the city of seven-hills will be demolished, and the fearsome Judge will judge his people. (The) End.
The Catholic Church hasn't been headed by a Bishop of Rome named Peter (or translated equivalent) for nearly 2 millennia, indeed, no one since the Prince of the Apostles. So why would a prophesied pope, one who has never (yet) been elected, be newsworthy? Because the epithet immediately above him on the list is the ambiguous “Gloria oliuæ”, meaning “Glory of the olive”: According to the count that increments with each new pope, “Gloria oliuæ” was Benedict XVI, who abdicated in February 2013.
[Note ‡: St. Malachy is either the subject, or a person receiving significant mention, in multiple articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia. To make it more likely that biographical information about him from that traditional Catholic source will not get scattered among other entries related to him on this unofficial part of the Web site, the webmaster will attempt to confine that information (and the C.E. links to those articles) to the biographical entry for him herein: “St. Malachy O'Morgair” (as linked above). The webmaster will also attempt to confine information on the prophecies about the papacy to this entry.

Note *: “imposuit ... nomen” [Mc. 3:16 Vulgate], meaning “laid (the) name upon”, especially in the sense of burdening Simon with a duty. See, e.g., the article “St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles” (1911), in the Catholic Encyclopedia.

Note #: The Latin book Lignvm Vitae , in which the prophecies were first known to be published (1595), specifically its 5-page section attributed to “S. Malachias”, is viewable free (via Google Books) on line: Liber Secundus p. 507 &seq.  “Petrus Romanus” appears on p. 511. Patience is definitely a virtue when using this on-line resource; slight movements of the slider bar on the left before the initial page image is fully loaded can move the focus to a view hundreds of pages away from the page specified by the URL; use the grasping-hand cursor instead. Or one can hold a magnifying glass to p. 23 in Thomas Horn & Cris Putnam (2012): Petrus Romanus: The FINAL Pope Is Here.

Note ^: “extrem·us | -a | -um”, literally meaning “farthest out” could be translated in the sense of time, as “final”, or in the sense of degree, as “worst”, and they're not necessarily mutually exclusive.

Note †: “trans·ig·o, -ig·ere, -ēg·i, -act·us | -a | -um”, literally means “to pierce through”, as in stabbing with a weapon, thus a transferred meaning “to complete” or “to finish”. ]
Precepts of the Church
From Latin “præcip·io, -ere” (“præ” + “capio”), literally “to take before or in advance”, but used in a transferred sense, “to advise, instruct, or admonish”; thus the n. participle “præcept·um, -i”, used as a substantive: “a rule or command” (or sometimes “an injunction”). In law, a precept is a command given from someone in civil or ecclasiastical authority to another (e.g.: from a judge to a sheriff). These Precepts are rules that faithful Catholics are obliged to follow. They are sometimes called the Commandments of the Church, perhaps to avoid having them interpreted as mere “guidelines” (commonly treated as voluntary).

Unlike the JudæoChristian Ten Commandments, these separate commandments have nothing as straightforward to trace them to as a divinely inscribed list on stone tablets documented in the Old Testament (Ex. 20, Dt. 5). Even in the most modern centuries, when the Precepts attained the form of a list of individual obligations, the lists vary in number and content. They evolved through distant centuries of writings by Catholic clergy, at least as far back as the reign of Emperor Constantine, the Cilician-native Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury (s. 668/669--690), Abbot Regino of Prüm (?--915) , but continuing to be developed by influential saints, notably St. Antoninus of Florence (1439), St. Peter Canisius (1555), and St. Robert Bellarmine (1589), into an explicit list of precepts binding all Roman Catholics.

One of the religious benefits of the 15th century's new movable-type printing technology was that it made catechisms practical as a tool for teaching the faithful. Traditional catechisms in English, containing the Precepts of the Church or chief commandments of the Church, and explanations of them, are now available by the late-20th century's Internet/WWW technology:
Cave !  The generically named Catechism of the Catholic Church: actually the modernist revision for the Novus Ordo (its opening with the ‘apostolic constitution’ “Fidei depositum” by Pope John Paul II (11 Oct. 1992) being conclusive evidence). It presents 6 de facto (separately footnoted) “precepts of the Church”, although only the first 5 are explicitly numbered. If an on-line search finds a document with 4-digit-numbered paragraphs, esp. beginning with “2” for this topic (i.e.: § 2041--2043), then the modernist revision is what it's found.

Cf. “catechism”, for a more general description of those documents.
From Latin “presbyter-”, via Greek «πρεσβύτερος, -ὁ» (“presbúteros, -ho”): the substantive from the comparative adjective formed as “présbus, -ho”: “old” or “old man” + comparative suffix “-teros”, thus not just the literal meanings “older ones” or “elders”, but also the broader meanings “more important ones” (in particular: “an elder of the Jewish Council” or “an elder of the Church”), “revered ones”, or “chiefs”.

Since Vatican II, it's a word used primarily by some traditional Catholics, instead of “priest”, as a pointed expression of doubt about the validity of the priestly authority conferred by the nominal ordinations (sometimes called ‘installations’) performed by Novus Ordo bishops. However, those same traditional Catholics continue to use “priest” to refer to clergy who've been traditionally ordained by traditional bishops (or who would reasonably be believed to have been so).

But in the earliest centuries of the Church, the word was used--albeit ambiguously--for people who exercised valid authority in the Church. One historical view, i.a., presented in an article in the Catholic Encyclopedia[*]:
The designation presbyter, it is suggested, may have been given to all those who were recognized as having a claim to some voice in directing the affairs of the community, whether this were based on official status, or social rank, or benefactions to the local Church, or on some other ground; while those presbyters who had received the laying on of hands would be known, not simply as "presbyters", but as “presiding (proistamenoi-- 1 Thes. 5:12[#]) presbyters”, “presbyter-bishops”, “presbyter-rulers” (hegoumenoi--Heb. 13:17[#]).
The Latinized word “presbyter-” appears in various places in the Vulgate New Testament, e.g.:
The latter excerpt is from a verse in the Epistle of the Apostle James the Lesser which has historical value: It was taught by the Council of Trent to have documented the “promulgation” of the sacrament Extreme Unction[+].
[Note *: George Joyce 1908: “The Church”. Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 3. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). His analysis appears to be based only on Greek texts, because some of his citations are not valid for the Vulgate.

Note #: A different phrase appears in the Vulgate: “eos qui [...] præsunt vobis in Domino” (“them who [...] are over you in the Lord” --1 Thes. 5:12)

Note ##: A different phrase appears in the Vulgate: “præpositis vestris” (“your prelates” --Heb. 13:17)

Note +: ‘Sess 14, c 3’ per St. Joseph (Textbook) Edition of the Holy Bible. N.T. p. 248 (Jas.) n. 5,14. ]
From O.E. “prēost” via Latin “presbyter-”, from Greek (q.v.). Suprisingly, words known from the classical eras of 2 sacred languages of Christendom were neglected: Ecclesiastical & classical Latin “sacerd·ōs, -ōt·is” (m.|f.), and classical Greek « ἱερεύς» (“ hiereús”), both of which are translated into English as “priest”.

The Catholic priesthood is traditionally limited to men [1 Cor. 14:34; 1 Tim. 2:11].

See, e.g., contemporary encyclopedic articles from the perspective of the traditional times of Pius X, a century ago (i.e.: links into the Catholic Encyclopedia , in alphabetical order):
Since Vatican II, “priest” is a word that's limited by some traditional Catholics, to referring to clergy who've been traditionally ordained by traditional bishops (or who would reasonably be believed to have been so). However, those same traditional Catholics use “presbyter” as a pointed expression of doubt about the validity of the priestly authority conferred by the nominal ordinations (sometimes called ‘installations’) performed by Novus Ordo bishops.
The Catholic Church has never allowed the ordination of priestesses (called “womenpriests” by their advocates), nor consecration of bishopesses, unlike those oh-so-progressive Anglicans & Episcopalians.

The traditional Catholic prohibition was confirmed even for the Novus Ordo church, most recently in the apostolic letterOrdinatio Sacerdotalis” by Pope John Paul II (22 May 1994), as reïnforced by William Card. Levada: Prefect of the Congregation pro Doctrina Fidei (CDF), who signed the ‘general decree’ that announced the CDF decision (19 Dec. 2007) “regarding the delict of attempted sacred ordination of a woman” (‘n. 337/02’); he is former Abp. of San Francisco (ahem). Neither could be called a “radical traditionalist” by any sane stretch of imagination, both being prominent examplars of the modernist Vatican hierarchy.

The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution should not be interpreted as subordinating traditional Catholic Church doctrine to secular U.S. law on “equal opportunity” in employment.
pro multis
The following is the prayer said by the priest in the Tridentine Mass, i.e.: the fully traditional Mass, to consecrate the sacramental wine in the chalice, immediately before genuflecting and elevating the chalice:
Hic est enim Calix Sanguinis mei, novi et æterni testamenti: mysterium fidei: qui pro vobis et pro multis  effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.

Hæc quotiescúmque fecéritis, in mei memóriam faciétis.
In English:
For this is the Chalice of My Blood of the new and eternal covenant: the mystery of faith, which shall be shed for you[#] and  for many  unto the forgiveness of sins.

As often as you shall do these things, in memory of Me shall you do them.[*]
So far, so good. The issue is that following Vatican II, the prayer was revised to become slightly different in the Novus Ordo. At first glance, it might've seemed to be an insignificant revision: “for many” was replaced by “for all ”.  But the change has substantial theological implications. [....]
[Note *: P. 37 verso (Latin) & 37 recto (English) in Rev. Joseph F. Stedman 1944: My Sunday Missal: Latin-English, Larger Type edition. Confraternity of the Precious Blood: Brooklyn (N.Y.). 476 pp. Nihil obstat James H. Griffiths, S.T.D., Censor Librorum; Imprimatur +Thomas E. Molloy, S.T.D., Bishop of Brooklyn (4 Aug. 1942).

This source, whose imprimatur was granted 2 full decades before the opening of Vatican II, is what's readily available to the webmaster as a printed book (how quaint! ). Nevertheless, he would welcome the opportunity to cite a more authoritative source, e.g.: an actual altar Missal.

Note #: The Latin vobis” shows that this instance of English “you” is the plural. The English translation in this Missal does use capitalized “Thou”, “Thy” (i.q. “Thine”), and “Thee” in prayers directly addressing the Christ or other Persons of the Trinity. The noncapitalization of Latin possessive pronouns referring to the Christ is as shown in this source. ]
Latin “prōmulg·o, -are”: a Roman legal term meaning “to publish a proposed law”. The Church has given the subject word a more specialized technical meaning [*], for which it apparently considers the English verb “to publish” inadequate.

No classical Latin root  was cited, and indeed, no “mulg ·o, -are” was found for classical Latin.[#]  Claimed by a secular English-language dictionary to be an unexplained variation of Latin “prōvulg·o, -are”, which is also not found for classical Latin. Nevertheless it does have a “vulg·o, -are”, meaning “to spread”, in the sense of making widely accessible, “to make public”, or even “to publish”. It seems possible that the prefix “pro-”, meaning “forth” or “forward”, was a needlessly redundant addition by the “vulg·us, -i” (n.), meaning “the people”, in the sense of the general public, or less flatteringly, “the rabble”[†].
[Note *: Alphonse Van Hove 1911: "Promulgation". Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 12. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note #: Considering classical Latin words that seem phonetically closest to the root word expected, e.g.:
  • mulge·o, mulg·ēre, muls·i”, meaning “to milk”,
  • mulc·o, -are”, meaning “to thrash” (e.g., with a blunt weapon) or “to batter”,
  • mol·o, -ere, -ui, -itum”, meaning “to (crush or grind in a) mill”,
none seem to fit, not even with a heap of literary license for each. It appears not to have been adopted from classical Greek, which provides «μύλλω» (“múllō”), meaning “to mill”, to which all its words beginning «μυλ-» are related.

Note †: “Their rabble” may not have been much different from what might be called “our rabble”, who have the charming habit of routinely butchering words in their native language, by pervasive indifference to understanding them, e.g., the phrases “(n)-year anniversary”, “percent A.P.R.”, and “report back”. For them, rising above marginal literacy is much less important than ‘dunks’, ‘assists’, qualifying for the ‘play-offs’, who “got next”, and--ironically--“respect”. But the webmaster digresses. ]


quartodeciman  [DRAFT]
From the classical Latin which would have been “diē quārtā decimā”[§], expressing the time “on the fourteenth day”, its counting being signified by the ordinal numberquārt·us | -a | -um decim·us | -a | -um”, thus meaning “fourteenth” (“14th ”).[*]

Adjective for the early Christian tradition that the Pasch of Christian salvation be celebrated each year on the day of the Paschal Full Moon, i.e.: the moon on whatever day of the week was counted as the 14th day of the month in which Passover was celebrated according to the ancient Jewish calendar.

Labelled by the substantive plural as “quartodecimans”, the Christians who celebrated the subject tradition were so tenacious that a pope sitting in Rome couldn't talk the subApostolic St. Polycarp, visiting as Bishop of Smyrna (a prominent city in the Roman province Asia), out of continuing to do so. This tradition was not an invention by a devout-but-senseless antiquarian[‡]; instead, it was credited to the long-lived St. John the Apostle & Evangelist, who'd settled in Ephesus (capital of the Roman province Asia). It was observed by Christians throughout Anatolia (if not also other lands in the continent Asia)[@].[#]  Among Christians almost everywhere else (e.g.: except Syria), the celebration of Christian salvation was required to be on a Sunday. [....]
[Note §: Latin uses the ablative case for a time of occurrence that would be expressed in English as, e.g., “on (a specified) day” or “at (a specified) hour”. However, when applied to this usually-masculine noun “di·ēs, -ēī ”, it's required to be treated instead as feminine, requiring any adjectives to be declined as feminine. So why is the adjective compounded by connection via the ablative masculine ending “-ō ”?  Perhaps the masculine form “quārtō decimō” came to be used only for the people who observed this tradition, as generalized to the masculine gender?

Note *: Possibly also expressible, using the superscript ordinal sign of the modern Romance languages, as “XIIIIª” or “XIVª”. But in particular, not by either the indeclinable cardinal numberquattuordecim” spelling out “XIIII”, “XIV”, or “14”, thus meaning “fourteen”, nor by the distributive numberquaternī dēnī”[**], meaning “fourteen at a time” or “set of fourteen”, and declined only with plural forms.

Note **: A table of numeric adjectives & adverbs, including ordinal numbers with notes, is provided as “A Brief Guide to Latin Numerals” by the Later Latin Society of Hobart, Tasmania (Australia[!]).

Note ‡: Inspired by the phrase “senseless antiquarianism”, criticized by Pope Pius XII in his antimodernist encyclical “Mediator Dei” (20 Nov. 1947, § 64).

Note #: Herbert Thurston 1909: "Easter Controversy". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note @: Alas, the Catholic Encyclopedia article cited immediately above contains a link “Asia”, to another Catholic Encyclopedia article about the continent Asia. This might be an error of misunderstanding by one of the transcription volunteers at the “New Advent” Web site: Except for the pope and other officials remote from the issue, the people discussed as advocates of the observance are known to have resided, or been assigned to, the continental Asian peninsula confusingly known as Asia Minor, which in Roman imperial times, contained a province, later a diocese, also known even more confusingly, simply as “Asia”. ]
19th letter in Arabic, named qāf’, is the first letter of Qur'an as written in Arabic (albeit artificially shown above in its isolated form). This accounts for ‘ Q ’ being the first letter of the word in its most literal transliteration into English.
The primary holy book of Islam, originally written entirely in Arabic, initially for an Arab audience.[×] 

Eye-witness testimony supports apparent photographic evidence of the scandal caused when a modernist pope once kissed a copy of the Koran that was offered by Muslim official visitors to the Vatican.
[Note ×: Gabriel Oussani, 1910: "Koran" ("or better Qur'an"). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Christian readers may be entertained by seeing what the other “People of the Book” think about it, e.g.: (anon.): "Koran". Jewish Encyclopedia. <>. ]


reredos [ D R A F T ]
A structure (sing., not pl.) in the sanctuary behind the altar, in front of the wall [....] tabernacle [....] candlesticks [....]

From Middle-French “areredos”, combining “arere” meaning “behind”, and “dos” meaning “back”, the latter from Latin “dorsum, -i” (n.).
A document by the pope or one of his Church organizations [@], expressing a decision in writing, in response to a request from an individual. From Latin “rescript·um, -i” (n.): substantive-from-participle of “rescrīb·o, -ere”, meaning not only “to write again” (e.g.: in the sense of renewing an enrollment or enlistment), but also to “to write back”. Especially in imperial times, it referred to an official answer in writing to a request that had been sent to the emperor himself.
[Note @: Because the meaning of the word is so little changed from Classical Latin, i.e.: the authorship of the answer being transferred from the emperor to the pope, the definition above refers to “Church organizations” in the sense of its ‘headquarters’, instead of the modern synonym “the Vatican”, which actually didn't become Roman-Catholic ‘headquarters’ until rather recently in the Church's nearly 2-millennium history. ]
resignationism [ D R A F T ]
Personal belief that the Chair of St. Peter is not occupied by the man who currently claims to be “Bishop of Rome”, celebrated as having won election by the Sacred College of Cardinals in March 2013, but instead, by the still-living man who overtly resigned the office in February 2013, causing a papal election to be held at the Vatican in the following month.

The apparent inventor(s) of the novel but counterintuitive term, who write(s) under the banner of the Web site NovusOrdoWatch[@], seem not to have noticed that it means the opposite of what an unfamiliar reader would expect it to mean: Not that the newsworthy resignation was valid under Canon Law, but instead, that the resignation was not valid, and thus the man elected to the papacy in April 2005 is still the one-&-only living pope of the Roman Catholic Church! The inventors of the term believe that devout--but not necessarily traditional--Catholics who've followed the “quotable quotes” and noteworthy acts by the current claimant to the title “Bishop of Rome”, might respond by adopting this position, because it's religiously or psychologically less troubling than adopting sede-vacantism as the explanation.

Cave !  Presenting this definition does not constitute advocacy of the subject belief.[†]
[Note @: NovusOrdoWatch: <http: //> is one of several Web Sites focused on the Novus Ordo church, whose modernist pronouncements & acts have diverged from traditional Catholicism so conspicuously since Vatican II. Contrary to what might be inferred from the definition above, NovusOrdoWatch is an overtly sede- vacantist Web site.

[Note †: The main page of this Web-site states explicitly that this church “Recogniz[es] the sovereignity of His Holiness Pope Francis”. ]
Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA)
An invention of the Congregation for Divine Worship, as approved by Paul VI in 1972, following the Constitution of the Sacred Liturgy a.k.a. “Sacrosanctum Consilium”, Chap. III, Arts. 62--71 (especially 64)[#], at Vatican II, also approved by Paul VI in 1963, devised to accomodate converts to Novus Ordo Catholicism. It combines the modernist versions of the sacraments of Baptism [*], Holy Eucharist (i.e.: First Communion), and Confirmation. It includes these inventions:
[Note #: “Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy” (title), i.q.Sacrosanctum Consilium” (incipit) <http: // vat-ii_const_19631204_sacrosanctum-concilium_en.html> (numbering per Latin original; Vatican's HTML reformatting for the Web does not provide fragment-identifiers to enable direct access to its ‘articles’ (i.e.: Indoärabic-numbered sections) nor even its ‘chapters’). Fascinatingly, the Latin original, preceding the title and incipit in Latin, attributes it to “Paulus Episcopus [,] servus servorum Dei [,] una cum sacrosancti Concilii Patribus [....]”, meaning “Paul the Bishop, servant of the servants of God, together with the Fathers of the sacred Council [....]”. In the Vatican's purported translation into English, the title in English and the incipit in Latin precede the attribution, which is instead “Solemnly promulgated by His Holiness Pope Paul VI on December 4, 1963”--no mention there of any “Council”, although art. 1 clarifies its origin. Impressively fast work from a Council that'd been reöpened less than 10 weeks earlier.

Note *: Why would presumably-mostly-Protestant adults converting to Catholicism lack baptism and need the Catholic Church to provide that first sacrament (arguably the most fundamental) of Christianity? Perhaps for a combination of reasons:
  • increasing social secularism, as indicated by declines in the congregations of many Christian sects, and
  • widespread opposition by Protestants--notably the Baptists-- to the traditional Catholic custom of baptizing infants within weeks of their births.

The webmaster, who was baptized soon after his own birth, is puzzled, and regrets that he will need to read up in Novus Ordo sources to figure out this RCIA, e.g., at the verbose Web address used by the U.S. Conference of catholic Bishops: <http: // rite-of-christian-initiation-of-adults/index.cfm>. But considering that USCCB acknowledges that it's an “ancient rite restored”, it might be an excellent example of what Pope Pius XII criticized in his encyclical “Mediator Dei” (20 November 1947):
Just as obviously unwise and mistaken is the zeal of one who in matters liturgical would go back to the rites and usage of antiquity, discarding the new patterns introduced by disposition of divine Providence to meet the changes of circumstances and situation. // This way of acting bids fair to revive the exaggerated and senseless antiquarianism [....] (§ 63--64, emphasis added)
The Internet-accessible edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia was published many decades before this invention, so aside from various sections of the article listed first below, it's less help than might be hoped:
  • William Fanning 1907: “Baptism”. The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 2. Robert Appleton Co.: New York; New Advent 2009: CD Edn. 2.1 (compiled 26 Apr. 2010). <http: //>. See the section “Ceremonies of baptism”, esp. its paragraph beginning “In the baptism of adults”
  • Joseph Delany 1907: “Baptismal Vows” (made by adults converting to Catholicism). The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 2. Robert Appleton Co.: New York; New Advent 2009: CD Edn. 2.1 (compiled 26 Apr. 2010). <http: //>.
  • Benedict Guldner 1908: “Conversion”. The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 4. Robert Appleton Co.: New York; New Advent 2009: CD Edn. 2.1 (compiled 26 Apr. 2010). <http: //>. ]

(Has the webmaster ever mentioned that his major metropolitan library discarded its set of a fully traditional edition of The Catholic Encyclopedia, published in the late 1940s (thus Pope Pius XII), to replace it with a 21st-century set?)


The Jewish weekly “day of rest”. Perhaps assimilated by Latin most directly from the Classical Greek «σάββατα», which is pronounced similarly to the late Classical Latin “Sabbat·a, -ōrum” (n.), although stresses on syllables and matters of finesse might've differed. The word is attested in Latin in the late Classical period (in writings of men who didn't reach adulthood until the era of the Julian calendar); for them, despite its singular nature as 1 day out of the week, it had only plural forms.

Its use in Latin seems unsettled by the time of the Vulgate:
It seems more logical to use the singular forms for the Sabbath, e.g.: “cum transisset sabbatum ” (“when the sabbath had passed”)[Mc. 16:1], following the forms extracted above from the Old Testament, and the plural forms to express the then-relatively-recent nonRoman concept of the 7-day week.[#] That might explain the Later or Ecclesiastical Latin phrase “Dies Sabbata”.

Many Christians consider the sabbath to be the same day as the modern-English “Saturday”, whose name evolved through Old English “Sater(nes)dæg”, from preChristian Classical LatinDies Saturni”, meaning “Day of Saturn”. But although modern calendar days are reckoned from midnight to midnight, the Jewish sabbath begins at sunset Friday, and ends at sunset Saturday.
[Note †: Legends from Jewish rabbinical literature, not contained in the Biblical canon of Catholicism, are presented in the article “Moses”, in the Jewish Encyclopedia. <>. It cites “Ex. R. i. 32; ‘S. Y.’ [Sefer ha-Yashar], p. 115a” as a source for the legend, depicted in Cecil B. DeMille's 1956 film epic The Ten Commandments (3 23 hr.), that Moses, when still a member of the royal household, “instituted the seventh day, the Sabbath, as a day of rest for the Israelites” enslaved in Egypt. But unlike in the film, he did so, according to the J.E., only after securing the approval of Pharoah. This preceded the killing of an Egyptian by Moses, and his flight to Madian, so were it to be found chronologically placed in the Vulgate, it'd need to appear in Exodus chapter 2, somewhere in verses 11--15. But it doesn't.

Note *: See the article “Sabbath”, by Florentine Bechtel (1912) in the Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 13. <>.

Note #: See also the discussion of expressing time in Latin, and of the week, with special attention given to its use by the Catholic Church. Bechtel rejects claims of an origin in ancient Egypt, at least any concept of a week that fundamentally features a formalized ‘day of rest’. ]
Sacred Heart
Feast of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus (Latin “Festum Sacratissimi Cordis DNIC”) is a movable feast celebrated 68 days after Easter, thus always on a Friday. Being each year's last major feast that's determined by the Paschal Full Moon, its date ranges from 29 May through 2 July.

Originated many centuries ago as a private devotion, it was popularized in the late 17th century by St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. It was extended to the universal Church in 1856, by Pope Pius IX (r. 1846--1878). It was the traditional Pope Pius XI (r. 1922--1939), in his encyclical known by its incipit  “Quas Primas” (1925), who directed that the occasion for the dedication of mankind to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, which Pope Pius X (r. 1903--1914) had commanded to be renewed annually, would be the Feast of the Kingship of the Christ (last Sunday in October), not the subject feast.
Personal or organizational belief that the Chair of St. Peter is (metaphorically) vacant, in the sense that (hypothetically) the Roman Catholic Church has no valid pope at the present time .[#]  An ecclesiastical term derived from the Latin phrases “sēdēs vacans” or “sēd·e vacant·e” (q.v.).

This belief persists among some Catholics [†] despite the Vatican being known to be occupied by series of living popes acknowledged to have won election by the Sacred College of Cardinals. Nevertheless, it may be useful for incredulous or curious readers to know that some Catholics who hold this belief typically claim 3 conditions (satisfying 1 is sufficient):
Cave !  Presenting this definition does not constitute advocacy of the subject belief.[†]
[See also the entry “Sede-vacantism” (include the hyphen) in the Traditio Network's FAQ 10: How do you explain these traditional Catholic beliefs?”. And also the entries “Sede-impeditist” and “Sede-vacantist” in “FAQ 6: “What do these traditional terms mean?”.

Note #: This is not the same issue as unconditional rejection of the authority of the pope by other people who consider themselves Christians, notably the Protestants and the schismatic Orthodox sects. This issue and its divisiveness are confined to Roman Catholics. The sede-vacantists would accept the authority traditionally bestowed on the man wearing the papal attire in the Vatican, if they believed he were a valid pope. Thus, they are not Old Catholics.

Note †: The main page of this Web-site states explicitly that this church “Recogniz[es] the sovereignity of His Holiness Pope Francis”. ]
sedes vacans
A visible vacancy in the Chair of St. Peter, as officially acknowledged by the Vatican. The vacancy is usually the result of the death of the sitting pope, but can also be via his resignation, e.g., by Benedict XVI.

The main Vatican Web-site expressed their status quo after the effective date of his resignation, even on their English-language subsite, by the words “Apostolica sedes vacans”. A situation sometimes asserted (e.g., on <>), as a declaration “sēd·e vacant·e”[*]. From “sēd·ēs, -is” (f.), meaning “seat” or “chair”, referring in particular to “Sancta Sēdēs”: the Holy Chair of St. Peter in Rome, plus Latin “vacan·s, -tis” (pres. part.), meaning “empty”, from Latin “vac·o, -are”, not only meaning “to be empty”, but also for property, implying “lacking a master” (fascinatingly so in the context of the remnant papal temporal domain known as Vatican City).
[Presumably original rendering of the customary papal “Apostolica sedes vacans” symbol: the ombrellino sheltering crossed papal keys, is by the artist identified only as “Cronholm144” (used herein, unmodified, under CCA-SA license).

Note *: The “-e ” ending of the noun sēd·e ” identifies it as ablative singular. With the participle also placed in the -e ” variant of the ablative singular, it would be an example of the ablative absolute construct. Thus, “sēd·e vacant·e” can be translated either literally & asserting a circumstance: “the Chair (of St. Peter) being vacant”, or noncommittally expressing a (logical) condition: “if the Chair (of St. Peter) is vacant”. ]
From the Latin sēd·ēs, -is” (f.), meaning “seat” or “chair”, and thus the basis for the parse-confounding English noun “see”. It was originally applied to churches established by the Apostles. The more familiar term in English is “cathedra”, which is derived from the equivalent word in Greek. The Latin cognate verb “sedeo, -ēre” means, i.a., “to sit in judgment”. Cf. “s.” for “sedēns”.

Some very early sees are identified with the Apostles by documentation in the New Testament, e.g.:
Others are associated with the Apostles by tradition instead of meticulous documentation, e.g.:
[Note #: Enumerations of the Apostles, each explicitly totalling 12 according to the Gospels, contain 1 conspicuous mismatch: Jude [Lk. 6:13--16 and Acts 1:13] (in) vice Thaddeus [Mt. 10:2--4 and Mk. 3:14--19]. John introduces a 3rd name very similar to the former, quoting a question (asked) at the Last Supper by a “Judas not the Iscariot” [Jn. 14:22]. Traditional interpretation is that all 3 names identify the same apostle. For contrast, the synoptic Evangelists unanimously enumerate Bartholomew among the 12 Apostles under that name, not as the early-converted but unenumerated Nathanael, who appears in 2 episodes according to John [1:45--50, 21:2].

Note +: According to 1 tradition, Simon Peter himself had arrived in Rome ca. A.D. 42,  although perhaps he didn't settle in to residency at that time. He's not mentioned at all in the Epistle to the Romans nor in the 2nd Epistle to Timothy (notably not in its author's reasons for planning to visit [Rom. 1:13--15], nor in prison pondering mortality [2 Tm. 4:6--7, 9--13, 16], nor in the closing personal commendations & greetings [Rom. 16:1--16, 21--23; 2 Tm. 4:19--21]). Both epistles are credited to St. Paul: the former written from Corinth in the winter of 57/58; the latter written from Rome in 66|67. Yet in the 1st Epistle of Peter the Apostle, likely written in late 63 | early 64, the author sends his farewell from “[t]he Church which is at Babylon” [1 Pt. 5:13], traditionally considered a cryptic reference to Rome (e.g.: Ap. 14:8), where he was martyred in 67 (or perhaps 64). ]
From the classical Latin distributive number “septēnāri·us | -a | -um”, meaning “containing 7 ”.

A septenary is a novena-like [*] devotion scheduled either for 7 days consecutively, or 1 day in each of 7 weeks.
[Note *: Had the linguistic model of “novena” been followed, the comparably classical Latin word “septēn·i | -ae | -a”, would've been chosen, meaning “7 at a time” or “7 each”. ]
Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX)
The more common name in English for the organization that was founded for traditional Catholic priests in 1970, by the French Archbishop Marcel F.M.J. Lefebvre, as Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Pii X.[*] It would be more fully translated to English as the “Priestly Society of Saint Pius X”.
[Note *: The extensive primary entry for this organization is at the link above, which is on this (same) Web page. ]
(Abp.) St. Malachy O'Morgair
(1094--2 November 1148).  His baptismal name  Maelmhaedhoc  was deGaelicized & Latinized into Malachias, and Anglicized into the “Malachy” by which he's known today. He rose in the Church to become Archbishop of his native Armagh (modern south-central Northern Ireland, U.K.), thus by a tradition established by St. Patrick (ca. 445): primate of all Ireland.[‡]  He was canonized on 6 July 1199, by Pope Clement III; his feast is delayed by 1 day from the anniversary of his death, thus celebrated on 3 November, in order to avoid perpetual occurrence on the Feast of All Faithful Souls.

Nowadays, St. Malachy is most widely known for being “endowed with the gift of prophecy”, as a biographical article in the Catholic Encyclopedia described him (1910). His controversial prophecies about the papacy have received the most attention in the 20th & 21st centuries, as successive papal elections used up the remaining places he prophesied as preceding the final pope. St. Malachy made prophecies on at least 1 other topic, which in retrospect were more straightforward and compelling: English persecution of Ireland and Catholicism.
[Note ‡: Thus far, 3 articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia have been found relevant to this saint:
  • St. Malachy” (1910): a biographical sketch;
  • Prophecy” (1911), containing the personally focused section “Prophecies of St. Malachy”; and
  • Armagh”: the Emerald Isle's primatial and metropolitan see, which also prominently mentions St. Malachy.]
St. Margaret Mary Alacoque [*]

She popularized the centuries-older personal devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, after entering (1671) the Visitandine convent at Paray-le-Monial (“the monastic”) near the left bank of the Sâone, only a few miles from its confluence with the Loire (Burgundy, east-central France). The Christ appeared to her repeatedly, usually in what is now the Chapel of the Visitation. She was beatified in 1864, by Pope Pius IX. Her feast day is 17 October: the anniversary of her death.

A terse on-line update to the article “St. Margaret Mary Alacoque” (1910) in the Catholic Encyclopedia indicated that she was canonized in 1920, by Pope Benedict XV.
[Note *: Considering that she was born in France, it seems highly likely that her given name was “Marguerite Marie”. ]
Adjective for those people who had been blessed with a lifetime and other opportunities that allowed them to hear one or more of the Apostles in person. Perhaps most blessed were those who resided in or visited Ephesus (capital of the Roman province Asia); because of the settlement of St. John the Evangelist there, “the Apostolic Age had been prolonged till ‘the time of Trajan’”[*] (r. A.D. 98--117). 

Among the prominent subApostolic Christians was the Bishop St. Polycarp, whom a writer acquainted with him had described as “not only taught by the Apostles, and lived in familiar intercourse with many that had seen Christ, but also received his appointment in Asia from the Apostles as Bishop in the Church of Smyrna”.[*]  That placed him approximately 30 mi. by air from Ephesus, but because both were major seaports, the most practical connection in ancient times might've been 150 miles or so, under optimal conditions, by ship around the mountainous 2-pronged Mímas («Μίμας, αντος, ὁ») peninsula (Turkish Karaburun), but inside the nearby island Chios («Χίος, ἡ»).
[Note *: Bacchus, Francis Joseph 1911: "St. Polycarp[:] Martyr". Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). ]
subdeacon [ D R A F T ]
Latin “sub”, meaning “under” (+abl. when stationary, thus “below”, or +acc. when moving) + “diacon-” (see “deacon”).

According to the subject article in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1912):
The subdiaconate [....] is defined as the power by which one ordained as a subdeacon may carry the chalice with wine to the altar, prepare the necessaries for the Eucharist, and read the Epistles before the people. According to the common opinion of theologians at present, the subdeaconship was not instituted by Christ. Nor are there sufficient grounds for maintaining that it had an Apostolic origin. There is no mention of the subdiaconate in Holy Scripture or in the authentic writings of the Apostolic Fathers.
Not yet counted among sacred orders during the papacy of Urban II (late 11th century), the subdiaconate was officially declared to be among the major orders--albeit the lowest among them--by Pope Innocent III (early 13th century).

See, e.g., contemporary encyclopedic articles from the perspective of the traditional times of Pius X, a century ago (i.e.: links into the Catholic Encyclopedia , in alphabetical order):
One key point, oddly omitted by the articles listed above, is that the subdiaconate is the level of Holy Orders at which the solemn vow of chastity must be made.[#]
[Note #: William Fanning 1912: “Vows”. Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 15. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <http: //> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Perhaps this requirement was the rationale for the reclassification by Pope Innocent III, although delaying the vow to the level of deacon seems plausible as an alternative.
syndicalism [ D R A F T ]
Please see the broader entry on “modernism” (above, with links).


Thanksgiving Day
A secular holiday of the U.S. civil calendar.

The “First Thanksgiving”, defined as the first documented gathering in the New World for a festive meal by Amerindians and European explorers-or-colonists to which both parties contributed food, occurred at San Agustin: the modern city St. Augustine in Florida, on 8 September 1565.[*]

Alas, the writing of history for colonial North America was dominated by Protestant academics in the prestigious Northeastern-U.S. colleges of the Ivy League, whose majority were founded primarily to develop & educate men for lives as Protestant ministers, and were situated in the once potentially secessionist New England states of the 1814--1815 Hartford Convention (named for being hosted in the state capital of Connecticut).

As a consequence of its definition in the 20th century as the 4th Thursday of November, it ranges from November 22 (as in 2012) through 28 (as in 2013), which is the only range of dates in a month for which any day of the week can arithmetically be the 4th such day of that month. It  always falls before the first of the 4 Sundays of Advent, which are defined to range from November 27 through December 3 (i.e.: the Sunday nearest the traditional feast of St. Andrew the Apostle: November 30 [#]). The difference in days of the week at issue guarantees that this relationship holds every year (the definition is not affected by whether it's a common year or a leap year). There are only 2 cases of superficial numerical overlap to examine:
By defining Thanksgiving Day as a Thursday, the U.S. federal government avoided unnecessary conflict with the traditional Catholic abstinence from meat on Fridays.
[Note *: Marian T. Horvat 2011: "Our Oldest City and First Thanksgiving" (21 Nov.). <>. Cites Michael Gannon (1965, 1983) 1993: The Cross in the Sand [: The Early Catholic Church in Florida, 1513--1870], 3rd edn., p. 26--27. Other traditional Catholic Web sites have chosen this year to pounce on the New Englanders' Thanksgiving legends; see, e.g.: <>.

Note ‡ (Yankee text originally above now withdrawn for review): Nathaniel Philbrick 2006: “They Knew They Were Pilgrims”. Chap. 1 (esp. p. 3--30) in Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. Viking Penguin: N.Y.C.  ISBN 0-670-03760-5 (h.b.).

Note #: This is logically equivalent to November 30, ±3 days. It can be calculated rather trivially from the Dominical Letter for the following civil year, which will even more trivially determine the day of the week in which Christmas falls in the current civil year. ]
Latinate adjective derived from the Roman name of its city Tridentum, thus:
Tridentine Council (a.k.a. Council of Trent) [ D R A F T ]
Roman Catholic Council (“Sacrosancta tridentina synodus”) hosted in Trento (1545--1563). Decrees of the Council included (but please see prescriptive conclusion to this descriptive definition), esp.: [Summarized from Kirsch (1912)].

When the Council of Trent officially opened on 13 December 1545 in the then-new [¿] Church of Santa Maria Maggiore [?] or [¿¿] the Duomo a.k.a. Cathedral of Saint Vigilius [??] [2 sources disagree; need tie-breaking source!].
During the nearly 18 years between the council's opening and its (final) closing, 4 popes passed away: not only Paul III (s. 1534--1549), but also 3 successors, elected after it had begun, who failed to survive it: Julius III (s. 1550--1555), Marcellus II (s. 1555--1555), and Paul IV (s. 1555--1559).

When the council was concluded on 4 December 1563,
It would fall to St. Pius V (s. 1566--1572) to complete the bulk of the reforms of the council. There would still be work left for his successors, notably the correction & stabilization of the Vulgate. Although that task had been authorized in the 1st 4 months of the council, it would remain incomplete until the last decade of the century.
[Sources: Johann Peter Kirsch 1912: “Council of Trent”. Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 15. Robert Appleton Co.: New York. <> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

"C.M.": "Trent, Council of". Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, vol. 27 p. 247--250. ]
Tridentine Mass [ D R A F T ]
The fully traditional Roman Catholic Mass as formally standardized by the Council of Trent.

Cave !  In a Roman Catholic rhetorical context, a focus on the name of an ecumenical council can be misused by modernists to promote a belief that Catholic dogma on the Mass and sacraments can be changed by any ecumenical council without limitation. Such an argument begins something like this:
The Council of Trent sat from 1545 to 1563. It debated Catholic dogma on the Mass, and its decrees were confirmed afterward by a pope. For clarity in this discussion, let's call the Mass as stabilized by that council the “Tridentine Mass”.

Then 4 centuries passed, and times had certainly changed. Pope John XXIII, who called the 2nd Vatican Council, had (reportedly) told at least 1 writer that “Catholicism stood in need of reform”[*]. The new ecumenical council sat from 1962 to 1965. It debated Catholic dogma on the Mass, and its decrees were confirmed afterward by a pope. For additional clarity in this discussion, let's call the new Mass resulting from the new council the “Novus Ordo Missae”. The modernists insist that the 2nd Vatican Council and all popes from Paul VI to Benedict XVI have authoritatively spoken and must be obeyed by all Roman Catholics. So, the modernist argument concludes, it doesn't matter whether traditional Catholics disparage the “Novus Ordo Missae” as “NewMass” or even “NO Mass”; it's now the Mass for the Roman Catholic Church in modern times. It's every bit as valid sacramentally as the “Tridentine Mass” was for 4 centuries, but it completely replaces it, and gives it a well-earned eternal rest.
This modernist argument seems to make sense, so what could be wrong with it? After all, right here in the U.S.A., the (U.S.) Articles of Confederation were completely replaced by the (U.S.) Constitution. And the (U.S.) Constitution allows Congress to repeal (U.S.) federal laws that it previously enacted-- even if in a previous session-- and even to initiate repeal of amendments and original provisions of the same (U.S.) Constitution that is the supreme limit on its Congressional powers.

But this modernist argument overlooks the fundamental fact that the Roman Catholic Church doesn't work like the constitutional representative democracy of the U.S.A.; the latter was put into writing, in detail, to be a “nation of laws” from its very beginning. The Holy Catholic Faith is more akin to English Common Law, at least in the sense that both are based on centuries of long-unwritten tradition. But that does not make the tradition any less real or any less valid. The modernists operating the Church following Vatican II seem determined to ignore the crucial point emphasized by Pope John XXIII, less than a year before it opened: “The Catholic Church has a dignity far surpassing that of every merely human society, for it was founded by Christ the Lord.” [Veterum Sapientia, chap. 13, 22 Feb. 1962].

The origin of the fully traditional Catholic Mass is in the New Testament. The Council of Trent wasn't an exercise in invention, it was a formal process of stabilization. Although the traditional Mass did survive nearly untouched by the Church for almost exactly 400 years afterwards (i.e.: before modernist changes began to be issued by the Vatican in the 2nd half of the 20th century), it's not correct to say that the traditional Latin Mass is only 4 centuries old.

That's why fully traditional Catholics, when communicating with each other, do not use the term “Tridentine Mass”.

The fully traditional Mass should never be confused with the service that the NewVatican calls its “Extraördinary Rite”. The latter is a modernist invention in the 21st century, 4 decades after Vatican II was concluded.
[Note *: ‘Jo.C.’: “Pope John XXIII: Reign as pope”. (Encyclopædia) Britannica CD 2000. (Double-quoted herein because it's verbatim from that source, but it seems paraphrased, because it's worded in 3rd-person instead of the expected papal 1st-person.) ]


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Summary:  Anglicized classical name of the Roman hill on which the Basilica of St. Peter, the modern headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church, d.b.a. the Vatican City State, are now situated, on the far side of the Tiber from the classical “7 Hills of Rome”.
(Its substantive entry has been moved to the “glossary” Web page on this site; a link to that entry on its new page is at the side-header, i.e., the header immediately above, and to the left, of the colored background on which this entry appears.)
Vatican I
Called by Pope Pius IX (s. 1846--1877) on 29 June 1868, in his bull “Aeterni Patris”, the council was held in the south transept of St. Peter's Basilica [*], 8 Dec. 1869--20 Oct. 1870. For nearly a century, it was simply “the” Vatican Council, but by the 3rd third of the 20th century, it had come to be known as “Vatican I” (cf. Vatican II). As the result of this council, the infallibility of the pope was solemnly proclaimed as Roman Catholic dogma. The final vote, taken 18 July 1870 in a public session, was 535--2. However, a nonbinding vote 5 days earlier (13 July) revealed that 150--almost exactly 1/4--of the 601 assembled members of the council opposed the draft dogma (88 opposed + 62 favoring but with conditions). Such substantial opposition might diminish the prestige of the Church, and might give the impression of widespread disloyalty to the pope. Just 2 days (16 July) before the final vote, the pope granted leave of absence to opponents of the draft. Arithmetic suggests that 64 voting members accepted the offer, and that 86 others simply changed their vote.

The ecclesiastical victory was followed by secular disaster. Wars were breaking out in Europe, and Rome itself had been attacked. Less than a year before Pius IX called the council, French troops had helped the armies of the remaining Papal States repel an attack on Rome (3 Nov. 1867) by the expansionist Kingdom of Italy. Then 2--3 months after the council had been called, unrelated political turmoil erupted in Spain; a revolution was proclaimed (Sep. 1868), in which revolutionary troops defeated royalist troops. International relations in Europe heated up over the future of Spain. The day (19 July 1870) after the final vote on papal infallibility, France declared war on Prussian Germany. The outbreak of that war provided a diversion and a new opportunity to the expansionist Kingdom of Italy, determined to resume its military Unification of Italy. With the French verrry busy with Prussian Germany, the armies of the Kingdom of Italy captured Rome on 20 Sep., assimilating the city as its capital (2 Oct. 1870).

Despite these major distractions, The Vatican Council continued its work, albeit on issues secondary to infallibility. Pius IX finally decreed an end to the council on 20 Oct. 1870, in his bull “Postquam Dei munere” (“When by the favor of God”--CP translation), in which he protested that the independence of the council would be ruined by Rome's assimilation into the Kingdom of Italy. Pius IX became the first of 5 popes who would become “prisoners of the Vatican”.
[Note *: Nowadays, the Vatican does seems like the obvious place to hold an ecumenical council: It seems to have plenty of room, and everyone knows where it is. Although considering imminent historical developments, had Pius IX been omniscient instead of merely infallible, he might have made the council into a farewell bash for the Quirinal Palace. Although it had been the official papal residence for 3 centuries, Pius IX would find himself evicted soon after his infallibility had been solemnly proclaimed as Roman Catholic dogma. ]
Vatican II
The Second Vatican Council (1962--1965): the 21st ‘ecumenical council’ in the nearly bimillennial history of the Church. It was called as a ‘pastoral’ council by Pope John XXIII on 25 Jan. 1959, and was formally opened by him on 11 Oct. 1962. Following his death (3 June 1963), the council automatically closed, and by default, that would've been the end of it. But it was reöpened on 29 Sep. 1963, by his plainly modernist successor: Pope Paul VI, who concluded it on 7/8 Dec. 1965 [#]. The Encyclopædia Britannica concluded with a major understatement: The Council “had set in motion many changes that may not have been foreseen by the council fathers.”[*]. It is certainly true that the Roman Catholic faithful not only hadn't foreseen, but also failed to recognize, the breadth & depth of the changes.

The changes experienced are within living memories, but they're increasingly distant memories: For perspective, recall First Holy Communion as typically received in 2nd grade, thus age 8, and Confirmation in 5th grade, thus age 11. So a Catholic who'd received the sacraments of First Communion or Confirmation before Vatican II concluded (1965, as above), would have to've been born in 1957 or 1954, respectively. In 2013 (the 50th anniversary of its reöpening)[†], those still alive could expect to reach their 56th or 59th birthday anniversaries (more or less).

The Traditio Network's FAQ 8: What is the authority of Vatican II?” is especially relevant to Christians adopting or returning to the traditional practice of Roman Catholicism.
[Note #: Sources that the webmaster considers authoritative enough disagree on this date, some giving 7 Dec. 1965, others giving 8 Dec. 1965. Unless the council was up before dawn in Rome, it can't be a time-zone issue.

Note *: “Vatican Council”. (Encyclopædia) Britannica CD 2000.

Note †: “Annus Fidei” (the “Year of Faith”), opened by Benedict XVI on 11 Oct. 2012, and closed with a Novus Ordo Mass on the Novus Ordo “Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe”, on 24 Nov. 2013, ironically by Francis I. Video of the latter is available from the Vatican Web page linked above (<>), in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and the language of that famously Catholic country, Arabic. But not, e.g., in Croatian or Polish, nor in Irish Gaelic. ]
Vulgate (Holy Bible)
The traditional Holy Bible: Old Testament + New Testament, in Latin. It was derived from the Vetus Itala (i.e.: Old Latin Bible), as corrected by St. Jerome a.k.a. Hierome (A.D. ca. 340--420) in episodes from 382 to 405 [§]. He applied his expertise with Semitic languages, plus his knowledge of the Holy Land, to early Hebrew and Aramaic manuscript sources, producing a translation directly into readable Latin [*].

After its completion, it became the approved Bible of Latin Christendom. There was no need to distinguish it as a “Catholic Bible”, because the heresies of Protestantism were nearly a millennium away in the future.

The wondrous Renaissance communication technology known as movable type, combined with a printing press redesigned to take advantage of it, was used to print an edition of the Vulgate at least as early as 1456. Although popularly credited to Johann Gutenberg (ca. 1400--1468), typographic evidence suggests that it should be credited instead to the partnership of Peter Schoeffer de Gernssheym & Johan Fust. Although movable type goes a long way as a technological remedy to individual copyist errors and other entropy that plagued many centuries of manuscripts that were successively copied by hand, the printer's choice of which manuscript Bible to set into type then began to matter a great deal, because acurate printing would propagate all the errors in the chosen manuscript.

The Council of Trent declared the Latin Vulgate to be the official Bible of the Catholic Church, on 8 April 1546, and authorized the Pope to arrange for it to be corrected & stabilized. A revision, credited principally to Robert Bellarmine, was approved by Pope Clement VIII (s. 1592--1605) as free of dogmatic errors [#]. This new approved revised edition, which appeared on 9 Nov. 1592, became known as the the ‘Clementine’ revision.

The ‘Clementine’ revision of the Vulgate remains the most recent substantial revision or correction of the authoritative Latin form still consistent with Catholic tradition.
[Note §: Bibliophiles and historians can only muse enviously about the sources that might have been available to Jerome. Consider that during Jerome's lifetime, Rome had not been sacked for centuries, and a few years before Jerome's birth, Emperor Constantine not only had officially legalized Christianity (313), but also had been baptized himself (the sacrament perilously delayed until shorthly before his death in 337). Fascinatingly, in the year right before Jerome took on this task, the Edict of Thessalonica had been issued, by Emperor Theodosius I, which made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire (Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2). So it finally had become safe to bring Christian religious documents out of wherever they had been hidden during the imperial persecutions, e.g.: in the catacombs? Would the original texts of the Gospels or Epistles, or reliable copies, have survived the 3½ centuries since the Resurrection of the Christ?

Note *: Even the author of this Web page has noticed that Jerome used simpler grammar than might be expected from someone as scholarly as he, e.g.: simple prepositions instead of learnèd-but-obscure ablative -of-such-&-such meanings or purposes.

Note #: It makes no difference to Catholic dogma, e.g., whether St. Jerome erred in Mt. 19:24 in translating a handwritten Aramaic word as “camel” instead of the Semitically verrry similar and much more plausible word “rope”. Thus, a rich man still has greater difficulty in entering heaven than a “rope” or even a “camel” has in “pass[ing] through the eye of a needle”. Be that as it may, the questionable ruminant-quadruped translation appears also in the Vulgate of Mc. 10:25 and Lc. 18:25, both, according to Church scholars, originally written in Greek. ]
Early in the 20th century, Pope Pius X assigned the Benedictines to conduct an analysis of extant versions of the Vulgate, to attempt to recover--through analysis-- the text once produced by St. Jerome [+]. The effort had advanced far enough to demonstrate the tremendous benefits of one of the 19th century's newly practical technologies: chemical photography:
[Note +: The author of this page does not yet know the fate of this modern effort, but the impacts of World War I (1914--1918), and World War II (1939--1945), including the Allied invasion of Italy, especially the demolition of the Benedictine abbey at Monte Cassino (15 Mar.--18 May 1944), may have been quite significant, despite the lack of physical damage to the Vatican. The influence of modernists, erupting during Vatican II, is also unknown to the author, although he would not be surprised if he were to learn that they coöpted this effort then claimed it as the basis of new official-but-nontraditional translations subsequently issued by the Church. ]
Late in the 20th century, digital computing had been technologically impressive to engineers & scientists for decades, e.g.:
Then the technologists began to produce--not merely develop--systems that provided a level of refinement and practicality useful to scholars who were not engineers or logicians, offering increasingly compelling demonstrations of tremendous benefits at dramatically decreasing cost, as applicable to Biblical criticism and analysis as to scholarship in the humanities, e.g.:
[ The author of this page wonders whether there are still enough Catholic scholars who are both dedicated to Catholic tradition, and computer-savvy-- or at least computer-tolerant--enough, to apply digital computing technology to advance--or better yet, complete-- the effort initiated a century ago by Pius X. ]
For critical commentary on St. Jerome's work, see articles in the Catholic Encyclopedia:
The fully traditional translation of the Vulgate into English is cited nowadays as the DRV (q.v.).

Traditional Catholics whose budgets can't fit a published copy of the Vulgate into their budgets should consider the VulSearch computer program for Windows.
Vulgate Latin [ D R A F T ]
The simplified postclassical dialect of Latin that's exemplified by the Vulgate Bible, as edited by St. Jerome (A.D. ca. 340--420) in episodes from 382 to 405. The Nicene Creed as enhanced & approved at the Council of Constantinople (381), was expressed in Latin of the same time as Jerome's biblical efforts, and also exhibits simplifications in language. Both were written after more than 2½ centuries of decay in the language from its literary peak as Classical Latin (ca. 200 B.C.--A.D. 100). The postclassical dialect loosely coïncided with what might be called the deRomanization of the Roman Empire, e.g.:
Differences between classical Latin and Vulgate Latin can be found here & there, e.g.:


Novus Ordo equivalent to a traditional Catholic ferial day: a bottom-ranked status that can be assigned to any nonSunday of the week.[#]  The weekdays do not simply correspond to the traditional ferial days, because the bottom-ranked days are nearly 4 times as numerous in the Novus Ordo calendar as in the traditional liturgical calendar.
[Note #: Or if not an exact equivalent merely given a more vernacular name, at least an approximate equivalent. There may be subtle differences, e.g.: interaction with the “Octave of Christmas”, that would not be immediately obvious to a traditional Catholic. ]

x | y | z

(No entries begin with ‘x’ | ‘y’ | ‘z’.)

Beware: This page bears no Nihil obstat; it bears no Imprimatur.

The author of this page is neither a priest nor a member of any religious order. He was baptized a Roman Catholic during the reign of Pope Pius XII, in the same decade in which the council known as Vatican II was summoned, and was confirmed a Roman Catholic a few years before that council concluded its deliberations. He's had formal training in Latin, and can plod his way through some Greek. The author accepts, for the nonce [<ME: “the/n ones” ←“then ones” (dat.) = “(for) the once”], that except for his words themselves, readers have little else by which to judge him.

Sources routinely consulted by the author of this Web page are presented on a separate Web page within this site.

Mindful of the strong emotions sometimes evoked by the world-wide struggle to defend traditional Roman Catholicism, the author will endeavor to keep this page free of controversy that would be divisive among the traditional Catholic faithful. Nonetheless, this Web page may be helpful to Catholics attempting to preserve-- or return to-- the 19 centuries of Catholic tradition in their faith, to identify & illuminate some of the entities, issues, and terminology that may be encountered around other Catholics and nonCatholics.

In general, for authoritative information or commentary on issues of faith, the author refers readers to a fully traditional priest or to fully traditional publications, preferably bearing a copyright before 1950 , plus a Nihil obstat and an Imprimatur.

Copyright © 2010--2014 C. Phipps. All rights reserved.
(Web page created 2010-11-30; last modified 2014-12-30) [‘10’].