C.HTTP ;  S.HTTP 2017-05-24  ·  18:04:07 (-0700)  ·  WDom: 21  (W : 21  ·  W : 21  ·  WISO: 21)

key (or advice for readers)

Key

This key (or advice for readers) provides explanations of issues of content and its presentation that are characteristic of this Web-site, e.g.: Sources routinely consulted by the author of this Web page are identified on a separate “Sources” Web page within this site.

Note †: This Web page is not an official part of the Web site for Sacred Heart Traditional Catholic Church (SHTCC).  Development, hosting, and funding of this Web page is independent of SHTCC. 

The content of this Web page is provided by this site's webmaster as supplemental material that should be understood to be secondary to the official mission of this Web site[*]. In particular, SHTCC has not provided any of the content of this Web page; text and links presented herein have not been approved by the pastor or other clergy of SHTCC.  Thus, SHTCC is not responsible for its contents.

To reduce--if not prevent--confusion herein when using demonstrative pronouns to refer to Web sites, “this Web page” or “this Web sitealways refers to the Web site for SHTCC; whereas “that Web page” or “that Web sitealways refers some other Web site being discussed, even when it is the subject of discussion.
[Note *: As a summary, the official mission of this Web site is to make the current schedule of SHTCC Masses and devotions available via the Internet, especially to potential new parishioners and other Catholic visitors in this tourism-intensive region. ]

[The Webmaster confesses that this page has been expanded to such an extent that visitors might benefit significantly from a table-of-contents for the page (but he understands that such a table really ought to be generated by software).]

Arabic words
See “Semitic words” (below).
Aramaic words
See “Semitic words” (below).
attribution (or citation)

For the visual appearance of attributions or citations,
see “note style” (below on this same page).

Bibliographic source information, which, in the earlier days of this Web site, appeared on these Web pages only in a broad or limited form (or maybe not at all), is nowadays being uncovered and presented as attribution of specific sources, whenever an entry in this Web site's “glossary”, “notions”, “sources”, &c. pages is revised. This webmaster now considers routine attribution or citation to be a change that's overdue.

A few years ago, when he recognized that vertical space would be saved, and visual interruptions would be reduced, if he would move explanatory information out of the more-or-less weekly notices that were then becoming more common on the SHTCC schedule Web pages, and into new separate extra Web pages, there didn't seem to be a need to rigorously identify the sources of the information. The conventional wisdom insists that the average reader dislikes footnotes and (perhaps more so) endnotes. So a separate page was created on which this Web site's “usual sources” were identified, although only to the detail of the level of the book or series. At the time, it seemed clear enough that on a traditional Catholic Web site identifying  The Catholic Encyclopedia as one of its principal sources, that extra material herein to accompany a notice about special commemoration, e.g., of St. Anthony of Padua, would've obviously have come from the C.E. article predictably entitled “St. Anthony of Padua”, right?  Ummm, not necessarily: Recent experience has shown that different sources report different sets of episodes or miracles in a saint's life. Perhaps it's a matter of available evidence leading a scholar to conclude that a saintly episode that makes a wonderful story is more likely legend than fact. This Web site won't be making such judgments, but nowadays it will cite a source that addresses any claim that's contrary to what's “generally supposed”, or any especially amazing episode that's discussed herein, e.g., “the famous sermon to the fishes on the bank of the river Brenta in the neighbourhood of Padua; not at Padua, as is generally supposed”[+].

Attribution is a personal issue to this webmaster, because he has been serious about his photography for several decades, and remains so, despite the limitations of more modern equipment to which he's restricted by his modern budget, which makes it challenging to maintain his own expectations for quality. So other Web sites are definitely not welcome to pilfer, purloin, scrape, screen-capture, thieve, nor otherwise use elsewhere his images (especially not linking via ‘img src=’), without him granting his explicit permission in advance. In particular, providing a complete-&-accurate attribution to this webmaster is not an acceptable substitute for being granted explicit permission in advance.  So no, he will not “just be happy to get the exposure”[×].  It's really not an overstatement to just boil it down to stealing.  Making high-quality images, whether by chemical or digital media, reviewing them, then postprocessing them, requires a degree of mental focus that's not compatible with multitasking (as callous noncomputerists perceive the latter concept). Earning income from photography is financially challenging, because it incurs up-front expenses, whether chemical, for acquiring & processing film, or digital, not only for storage media, but also for keeping up with advances in computer-based hardware & software. And intended subjects can incur substantial expenses for round-trip travel outside a photographer's local area.[$]

It might be worth noting here that U.S. case law seems to have demonstrated that U.S. copyright law does not protect certain kinds of images: although derivative works of each might be protected.

If this Web site ever digresses into presenting recipes for food (e.g., for traditional days of abstinence), then this Web site will be guided by principles presented by David Lebovitz for the Food Blog Alliance: “Recipe attribution”[*].  Although it might be dismissed as “just a blog entry”,  which can hardly expect to be treated as setting standards, it was written by a professional pastry chef-turned-culinary-author, during the last month before his 5th book was published. As of access by this webmaster to that blog entry, he has 7 books to his credit (even his book that's arguably least devoted to food contains “nearly 50” recipes). In Internet-connected Western civilization, blogging about food, particularly providing recipes, plus reading those blogs, has become a very popular activity. It'd be no surprise at all if recipes have become the leading category of habitual plagiarism of text on the Internet, and if recipe how-to photos have become the leading category of habitual plagiarism of images on the Internet[×].  Lebovitz has almost certainly had abundant unwanted opportunities to ponder the ethics involved, i.e., whenever his recipes have appeared on the Internet without his permission and without being attributed to him. 
[Note +: Niccolò Dal-Gal 1907: “St. Anthony of Padua”.  Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 1.  Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01556a.htm> (retrieved for New Advent CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).  A comma in the cited source is highlighted above because context indicates that grammatically, that comma should be omitted as incorrect for a dependent clause. The C.E. author makes it clear that the sermon to the fishes was not at Padua, but in fact, that sermon was given instead merely near Padua. However, he muddles the relation of that fact to whether what was “generally supposed” was actually incorrect. If he means that the supposition is that the sermon was merely near Padua instead of at Padua, thus correct, i.e. (using rubric parentheses for logical grouping): “(not at Padua ) as is generally supposed”, then the highlighted comma should be retained. If he means that the supposition is that the sermon was at Padua, i.e.: “not (at Padua as is generally supposed)”, thus  incorrect, then the highlighted comma should be omitted.

Note ×: “Oh, he should just be happy to get the exposure”  is a dismissive excuse that's commonly offered by presumptious bloggers who are unwilling to produce images of their own, or to make ethical arrangements for obtaining them. The worst of them include people or businesses that generate income for themselves by routinely stealing images that were produced by others.

Note $: It's scant compensation that when provoked into, ummm, uncharitable moods, this webmaster can indulge in schadenfreude that certain nominally “professional photographers” of his acquaintance can no longer benefit from access to darkroom technicians whose expertise repeatedly compensated for the “pros' ” inexplicably persistent failure to learn basic rules for satisfactory exposure of film.

Note *: David Lebovitz 2009: “Recipe attribution”.  <https://FoodBlogAlliance.com/2009/04/01/recipe-attribution/>. Initially accessed 6 Sep. 2016.  It's a blog entry on a serious subject (despite its Web address revealing its posting on the U.S. “April Fools' Day”), written by a professional S.F. Bay-Area pastry chef who retired from the restaurant biz 10 years earlier, to become an expat professional writer on culinary topics. At the time of his 2009 blog entry, original culinary writing, including blogging as a logical side-line, had already been his means of making a living for a decade.  <https://www.DavidLebovitz.com/about/>. Accessed 7 Sep. 2016.  ]
brackets
Certain paired punctuation symbols used to signify grouping, which despite their limitations presented by Merriam-Webster as “marks used in writing and printing to enclose matter, chiefly as extraneous or incidental to the context”, are used, in fact, with special meanings in the “context” of epigraphy:
[Note *: Merriam-Webster.

Note **: The Economist Style Guide: The essentials of elegant writing (1992), p. 58, 60.

Note ‡: B.F. Cook: “Greek Inscriptions” (p. 259--319) in Reading the Past. © 1990 The Trustees of the British Museum. Barnes & Noble 1998 edn., ISBN 0-76070-726-X.

Note †: Specifically within Alan Wood's Web Site: respectively.

Note ††: David J. Perry: “Characters for Classical Latin”, ver. 5.1, 9 May 2009.  10 pp. A classicist and teacher of Latin, he's the designer of the “Cardo” font, which is oriented toward Latin and other classical scholarship. See character sets (this Web page, below).

Note #: Each character not in WGL4 will appear in MS IE6 as a white rectangle, regardless of whether the font set as the default contains a glyph for the character or not (this webmaster is testing the page with a default font that's proven to contain the glyph, because other browsers are able to display it). See “(Web) browser” and “character sets” (both this Web page, below).

Note ##: Terse test for MS IE6: ‘  ’  ‘  ’  ‘  ’; ‘  ’  ‘  ’.
But I digress; agreeing to expend the effort to make this special exception for MSIE would require convincing this webmaster that such a need could never possibly arise. Hah! MSIE users reading this Web site shouldn't hold their breaths: During his decades in computing, he's seen such claims or promises about future requirements repeatedly broken, even when he seemed to have good reasons to believe that he was the person in control of whether they were broken or not. See “(Web) browser” (this Web page, below). ]
(Web) browser
The programmer & webmaster of this site long ago adopted a policy of design & programming that conforms to documented internationally developed standards. That means doing as little as possible  to appease software, most notoriously version 6 of the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser (MS IE6), whose nearly 2 decades of development & promotion have been an arrogant exercise in rejecting internationally developed standards, presumably for the sake of locking-in not only their installed base of customers, but also the knowledge base of their developers.[#]  So although Web pages on this site will, from time to time, be tested for their proper display & behavior in MSIE, any flaws less catastrophic than preventing a site visitor from reading the main page and schedule page(s) might be left unresolved, if those flaws are absent in standards-conforming browsers.[##] 

Routine testing of pages for this Web site is performed using modern standards-conforming browsers, such as Firefox or Opera (apple Safari is also reputedly among them), sometimes using rather old versions to verify backward compatibility. If there's ever any convincing evidence that Big Brother has ceased to be an issue, the standards-conforming but almost certainly privacy-subverting Chrome  might also be installed & used for testing.[†]

See also “(Web) philosophy” (below).
[Note #: Why, yes, the webmaster of this site did recently experience an instructive reminder of how well-documented techniques fail in MS IE. How could any reader have guessed? It happened on the Feast of St. Patrick. Would any reader also like to guess what he would rather have been doing on the evening of that feast day, instead of devising a work-around to an MS IE failure?

Note ##: E.g.: The puzzling problem of characters that are in Unicode but not in WGL4, which when coded as HTML character entities to preclude issues with the encoding of the (X)HTML file for the Web page, are displayed by MS IE6 as white rectangles, regardless of whether the font set as the default in MS IE6 for displaying Web pages contains a glyph for the character or not. Yes, this webmaster is testing the page using a default font for MS IE6 that's proven to contain the glyph, because other browsers are able to display it on that same Web page as coded. Directly embedding the Unicode characters in binary form in a “.html” file that's encoded as  UTF-8  seems to be the technique successfully used for Unicode on Alan Wood's Web Site, but that's not a maintainable option for this Web site. See also “character sets” (this Web page, below), or the more extensive information at Alan Wood's Web Site (multiple links under his heading “Character set”, on his main page linked in the preceding sentence).

Note †: Chrome  is a product of google, for which direct & indirect violation of traditional concepts of personal privacy is a fundamental requirement of its business plan. Consider that it's not operated as any variety of nonprofit organization, but it's spent--and presumably continues to spend-- zillions of dollars to build, equip, staff, and continue to support huge facilities for servers that are sufficient to satisfy the world-wide demand for results from its Internet search-engine, yet it provides access to the Internet public for free, as in “free bread”, and provides its major products (e.g.: Chrome, Android) likewise. So what could be the source of its income that's made it so incredibly profitable, hmmm? ]
capitalization
Words are capitalized at the head of their entries only if they would be capitalized in midsentence in English, i.e.: only if they are proper nouns.

German words, which presently appear on this Web-site only rarely, will also conform to this rule in English-language text. The webmaster understands quite well that it's contrary to the rule for German-language text, in which all nouns are capitalized, even the language's most common nouns.
cave  ( ! )
Poetic imperative of Latin caveō”, meaning “to be on guard”, so this imperative is perhaps best translated as “Beware !”  It's placed here & there on this Web site, as warnings to readers, e.g.: of risks of misinterpretation or possibly unpleasant surprises, especially accepting a source as traditionally Catholic when it's really not.

For more information on the word itself, e.g.: derived legal phrases that're often heard in English, or its often-surprising Classical pronunciation, see the longer entry for “cave” in the Glossary.
character sets
This Web site is presented with its bias favoring the English language as written in the U.S.A., and international computing standards that facilitate doing so. Thus, the character set assumed by its coding is ISO 8859-1, less formally known as Latin-1, as approved by the International Standards Organization. Thus not the widespread-but-nonstandard character set from Microsoft properly identified as Windows Code Page 1252 (variously identified as  windows-1252 or “Western European (Windows)”, commonly mislabelled “ANSI Latin 1”, often just “ANSI”)[#].[*]

The relatively few words intended to appear in Greek or Semitic scripts will not display as such in browsers or on computers that lack support for  Unicode. Even when letters are correctly displayed (e.g.: in Internet Explorer 6 and Firefox 2), their combining diacritical marks might not appear where they should be displayed (e.g.: not appearing immediately above or below them), but instead, where they shouldn't be (e.g.: appearing off to the side); that also depends on the degree of support for Unicode. Although the author is a strong proponent of maintaining compatibility with older hardware & software to which Web-site visitors might be limited by fixed & limited incomes, Unicode  is such an important--yet straightforward--advance to simplify accurate presentation of letters in extended or foreign alphabets (e.g.: Greek or Hebrew), and unusual symbols, across a broad range of  apple, *nix  or  linux, and Windows computers, that the author of this Web site boldly decided to rely heavily upon it herein.

Older versions of Windows, and Microsoft software for them, support display & use of 652 characters, numbered according to Unicode, in the set MS named Windows Glyph List 4 (WGL4). They are usable as far back as MS Word 97 and Windows 98. The individual characters and their assigned numbers are effectively presented on Unicode informational pages on the long-established Alan Wood's Web Site[†].

Among the characters in use on this Web site (i.e.: SHTCC), WGL4 covers:
Alas, there's nothing in WGL4 for Hebrew (U+0590--05FF) nor Aramaic (Imperial Aramaic: U+10840--1085F). The Hebrew deficiency is much more significant, because various scholars of Aramaic seem to have become accustomed to substututing the more readily available square Hebrew letters, which were adopted from a stylized late version of Aramaic. And there's nothing in WGL4 for Syriac (U+0700--074F), which is a descendant of Aramaic that's very significant to the writings of early Christianity in the East. Also nothing in WGL4 even for basic Arabic (U+0600--06FF, never mind its Arabic Supplement: U+0750--077F). But this Web site does use Hebrew and Arabic characters, albeit sparingly. To find free fonts (“free” as in “free bread”) that will allow use & display of those characters, see the page “Large multi-script Unicode fonts for Windows computers” on Alan Wood's Web Site[†]. 

For letters & punctuation for the languages named above that are not covered by WGL4, but relevant to the emphasis on Latin in traditional Roman Catholicism, plus the Old Testament and New Testament of the Holy Bible, the author of this Web site has been using the free “Cardo” font. It was created by David J. Perry: a classicist and teacher of Latin, and the author of the book Document Preparation for Classical Languages (2nd Edn., Dec. 2010), who has a special interest in Latin epigraphy.  “Cardo” provides the following beyond WGL4: Since 2011, the webmaster of this Web site has been using “Cardo” with no problems, being set as the default font for browsers, even on a PC in use for so long that it was shipped as a native Windows-98 system. For the purposes of displaying this Web site, the only script lacking in “Cardo”, which Perry describes as “a Unicode font for classicists, biblical scholars, medievalists, and linguists”, is Arabic (except that it provides the Araboïndic numerals at U+0660--0669). As of the beginning of 2015, his font is no longer listed on Wood's page, but it's still available from Perry's Web site[††].
[Note #: The particular character set that Microsoft implemented as Windows Code Page 1252, which is identified in software variously as windows-1252 or “Western European (Windows)”, was involved with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in the sense that it was drafted, but never finally approved, by ANSI.

Note *: A browser user can change the currently selected character set used by that browser to interpret each Web page it loads, e.g.:
  • Mozilla FirefoxView --> Character Encoding: For users unfamiliar with this menu, it likely shows either “• Western European (ISO-8859-1)”,  or “• Unicode (UTF-8)”.  Empirically, it seems to recognize Unicode when set to “ISO-8859-1”.
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE), e.g.: version 6:  View --> Encoding: For users unfamiliar with this menu, it likely shows “• Western European (Windows)”,  so for this Web site, they should click “Unicode (UTF-8)”.  This change might need to be reversed to use corporate business-oriented Web sites, e.g., a bank or one's own employer's site, but there's no penalty for changing this setting back & forth, even if done frequently.
See “(Web) browser” (above).

Note †: Specifically within Alan Wood's Web Site:
  • <http://www.alanwood.net/demos/wgl4.html>, heeding the clue given by “demos/” that WGL4 is not itself a Unicode range, but is instead a character set created by Microsoft, by choosing some characters from certain Unicode ranges, and not choosing (i.e.: omitting) other characters from those same ranges; for each Unicode range presented as a complete list (to the extent that the range has been filled up by character assignments to date), see the pages accessed via the links on <http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/index.html>.
  • <http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/fonts.html>: “Large multi-script Unicode fonts for Windows computers”.

Note ††: David J. Perry's “Cardo” font: <http://scholarsfonts.net/cardofnt.html>. Perry's main page: <http://scholarsfonts.net/index.html>. ]
dates
Years shown as more than 4 digits with an embedded slash, (‘ / ’), or as a pair separated by a slash, when not obviously signifying a single winter that passed New Year's Day, signify instead that in that place & time, the date on which the year-number was incremented was not 1 January.
From want of attention to this, important events have sometimes been misquoted by a year. In illustration may be considered the death of Queen Elizabeth ⟨I⟩. This occurred in what was then styled in England 24 March 1602 ⟨O.S.⟩, being the last day of that year. In France and wherever the N.S. prevailed, this day was described as 3 April, 1603. To avoid all possible ambiguity such dates are frequently expressed in fractional form as 24 March/3 April, 1602/3. In our modern histories years are always given according to N.S., but dates are otherwise left as they were originally recorded. Thus Queen Elizabeth is said to have died 24 March, 1603.[**]
Of special interest for the history of the European colonization of the eventual U.S.A., England incremented its year-number on 25 March from 1155 until it adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752[*].
[Note *  (albeit insufficiently cited above): John Gerard 1908: “General Chronology” (historical), esp. § “Beginning of the year” Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 3.  Robert Appleton Co.: New York.  <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03738a.htm#beginning> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010).

Note **: John Gerard 1908 (as immediately above, except): § “The Gregorian reform”.  <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03738a.htm#gregorian> (retrieved for CD Edn. 2.1: 26 Apr. 2010). ]
ellipsis points
(i.q. points of ellipsis): The compound symbol formed from 3 dots placed on the baseline for text, i.e.: ‘...’ or ‘ . . . ’ (customarily formed on keyboards by repeatedly pressing the period a.k.a. full stop key), are underlined in quotations, i.e.: ‘...’, whenever they appear in original text that's being quoted on this Web site. It's an imperfect solution to a pet peeve: Ambiguity about whether a quoting author deleted original text, or whether the quoted original author or journalist wrote the points solely to express hesitation or pauses (without deleting any words), especially in speeches or oral testimony. Or even more of a peeve, original writers who fail to recognize grammatical contexts that call for a simple period (a.k.a. full stop) instead of ellipsis points.

There is a single-character precomposed horizontal ellipsis  ‘ … ’, but it's practically never used on this Web site, out of concern for correct rendering in as many browsers as possible.[#]  It's a crucial indicator of editorial modification (sometimes arguably context-confounding editorial misdeeds). So why take even a low risk by using a character which has a straightforward and well-known substitute that requires only the Web's universal support for ASCII?
[Note #: It's most readily available off line in the “Symbol” font on apple and Windows PCs. Although the character is in WGL4, it's encoded as 133, placing it within the internationally nonstandard character-code range (128--159) of Microsoft's  windows-1252, which was drafted to complete the set of characters that could be encoded in a single byte on microcomputers. Considering the omitted characters for which ASCII provides no usable substitutes [##], it's long seemed to this webmaster to be a waste of the precious encoding-space for 1-byte characters. Although it's available with increasing portability on line in the ‘General Punctuation’ set in Unicode (U+2026). See “character sets” (this page, above).

Note ##: Among the characters absent from ASCII, Microsoft's  windows-1252, and  ISO-8859-1  that have no usable substitutes: The diacritical mark used in English dictionaries and Latin texts to mark short vowels, known as the breve: ‘ ˘ ’ and ‘  ̆ ’.  Likewise its plausible-but-imperfect substitute, the caron: ‘ ˇ ’ and ‘  ̌ ’.  Both named characters are provided by WGL4 only among the Unicode ‘Spacing Modifier Letters’: U+02B0--02FF). ]
Greek words
Greek words on this Web-site may appear in 2 scripts (either or both):
Although the modern government of Greece decreed simplifications to contemporary forms of its native language, beginning in 1981, the most formal presentations of Greek use a dizzying variety of diacritical mark [*]:
[Note #: Or they all will be as soon as the webmaster is able to make all the pages on this site conform to that decision. There are a lot more occurrences of Greek than he recalled when he decided to adopt that rule. Sigh.

Note ##: Alas, the Unicode characters for dasia are not in WGL4 (i.e.: neither the combining diacritical nor the spacing character), so in old versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer (MS IE) (see “(Web) browser”, above), it won't be displayed correctly (it'll appear as a white rectangle) even when the font set as the default for the browser contains a glyph for the character (see “character sets”, above). That default font can be checked or set, e.g., in MS IE6Tools --> Internet Options --> General (tab) --> Fonts (button); then on the  Fonts dialog-box that appears, scroll through the  Web page font menu to find or change the highlighted font, which is the one that's the default. Once upon a time, the webmaster of this site pondered accepting some inauthentic ugliness in return for improved visual recognition, by checking the browser-id, then in certain cases, by simulating the subject character with a leading superscripted ‘c’ ( c ). But doing so would have no effect on the official mission of this Web site, and plausible other benefits seem not to be worth the hassles, and certainly will be less so as older computers are replaced by newer ones.

[Note *: Information on Greek typography, especially phrases quoted about the diacritical marks above, was summarized from Yannis Haralambous: “From Unicode to Typography, a Case Study: the Greek Script”. 14th International Unicode Conference: Boston, MA, March 1999. <http://omega.enstb.org/yannis/pdf/boston99.pdf> (36 pp., in 3.7 MB). ]
Hebrew words
See “Semitic words” (below).
hyphenation
Compound words whose proper-noun base would be capitalized in English, but whose Latinate compound-forming prefix would not, are typically not  hyphenated on this Web site. Instead, they are rendered herein using what's come to be called camelNotation, e.g.: as “transAtlantic” instead of “trans-Atlantic” or “Transatlantic”.[*]
[Note *: The webmaster hereby confesses to being peeved by widespread hyphenation in English of Latinate compound-forming prefices, especially “non” (e.g.: “non-aggression” instead of the more sensible “nonaggression”). He believes that camelNotation: a style of writing compund words in which the hump of capitalization occurs more-or-less in the middle of the word, is a ‘wave of the future’, and he optimistically expects it to spread into the Real World from recent decades of mixed-case capabilities for computer programming. Although in certain styles of programming, strings of consecutive letters having multiple humps are commonly encountered, on this Web site, humps will likely be limited to a single one, as typified by the Arabian camel. So in a spirit of moderation at this writing, e.g., for mentions of the numerals of modern Western civilization, the spelling as “Indoärabic”, instead of “IndoArabic”, seems likely to prevail--eventually. ]
Latin words
Latin words, whether classical, mediæval, or ecclesiastical, are displayed in small capitals (a.k.a. small caps), e.g.: “Roma”, “In principio erat Verbum”.  This choice seems to provide an effective visual distinction:
Following scholastic customs for definitions, the set of forms of each Latin word is signified by listing a specific small subset of those forms:
A few words in Latin, esp. below, are shown with a diëresis (from Latin “diæresis and Greek «διαίρεσις », meaning “division”). The mark looks like a horizontally aligned pair of dots ( ¨ ) placed over a vowel, and it would be known to German Catholics as the modern form of their native language's umlaut. This diacritical mark is used herein, even though Latin typically does not use it, for its traditional--but increasingly neglected--purpose in English: signifying that the 2nd of 2 consecutive vowels begins a separate syllable, and is to be pronounced separately from the 1st consecutive vowel (i.e., the 2 consecutive vowels do not signify a diphthong). In Latin, it could be used to distinguish “aër, -is ” (m.): “air” (in the sense of the atmosphere from the ground through the clouds) from “ae·s, -ris i.q.æ·s, -ris ” (n.): literally copper, but often broadened to identify instead one of its alloys: brass or bronze. In modern English, this useful mark is increasingly neglected, but can still be seen, e.g.:
An increasing number of words in Latin on this Web-site, esp. in definitions, are shown with with the mark ( · ), which looks like a single vertically centered dot (a.k.a. middot), placed between letters. It does not indicate a break between syllables[‡]; instead, it indicates the point to which inflected endings should be appended. Without inserting the dot, readers with limited experience in Latin or Greek might have difficulty determining the whole correctly inflected form that a terse entry is intended to indicate, e.g.: Cassell's Latin Dictionary gives “vesper, -eris” (m.), or “vesper, -eri ” (m.), both Latin masculine nouns for “evening”. But the authors or editors left it to their examples to clarify that the alternative genitive singular forms were not to be interpreted as vespereris” or “vespereri ”. Instead, they actually should be vesperis” or “vesperi ”. Thus, as a notation (or syntax) to provide clarification, future revisions of pages on this Web site will insert ‘ · ’ as needed, although there are 2 plausible approaches, not merely 1 [*], e.g.: In the first example immediately above, the few letters preceding the dot do not necessarily constitute the root or stem of the word; e.g.: vesp ·a, -ae” (f.) is Latin for “wasp”.
[Note *: This webmaster asks readers not to overlook the phrase “future revisions”. There are enough higher-priority issues to resolve or improve on this Web site, that by comparison, it's extremely unlikely that a systematic search for instances of Latin words whose definition still lacks a middot would ever be carried out.

Note †: Use of the diëresis also avoids ugly hyphenation in English of the Latinate compound-forming prefix derived from the Latin preposition “cum” → “com” → “co m ”.

Note ‡: Unlike in some Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English. ]
nonhyphenation
See “hyphenation” (above).
note style

For the principles that justify inclusion of notes as attributions or citations,
see “attributions or citations” (above on this same page).

Some of the traditional Catholics for whom this Web site is principally developed & maintained might think it odd that it does not follow certain traditional style rules for writing and editing. That's not a failure or oversight on the part of the webmaster; he's well aware of those rules [*]. In the context of his extensive background in computing, some of those rules are unproductively inconvenient, unnatural, or just plain silly. So as long as the current webmaster has all the responsibility for keeping this Web site operational & up-to-date, expect that as a matter of his preferences, which might be dignified as a house style, the following rules will systematically not be followed:
[Note *: E.g.:
Note **: (Anon.) 1974: Words into Type, 3rd edn., p. 22--23. 

Note ***: When a reader tunes out the explicit double-quotes, it becomes simply an example of how a triple-asterisk (a.k.a. triple-star) reference would look in an entry.

Note #: E.g., a new note inserted after the original note 11 causes the original note 12 to be renumbered as note 13. As a result, an external reference to “n. 12” would be unintentionally citing content in the new note 12 that might be completely unrelated, or possibly contrary, to the original note 12. This is not a problem for content published as hard-copy; either the content, once printed, never changes, or it changes only in subsequent printings that can be cited, so the content referenced can be conclusively identified. Not so for Web sites, whose content can change at arbitrary times.

Note ##: Yes, count 'em: 3 decades!  According to a review in PC Magazine, even MS Word ver. 1 (1983) for PC-DOS could automatically number & place footnotes: “Footnoting is amazingly simple with Word. [Initial steps elided ...] simply hit the Enter key and Word will number the note for you in proper sequence. [....]  Type in the note. [....]  You can delete and move footnotes simply by deleting or moving the reference in the text [....]  Word miraculously renumbers [ them  the reference and the note] for you.”  Stephen Manes (contrib. ed.): “The unfinished Word”. PCM, 21 Feb. 1984, p. 192--205 (esp. 197).  If Wikipedia got its facts straight, WordPerfect ver. 4.2 (1986) also could automatically number & place footnotes: <https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WordPerfect>.

Note ###: Neither rectangular shapes nor question-marks are used as reference marks on this Web site.  This webmaster advises any readers who see any generic boxes or question-marks enclosed by quote marks in the bulleted list of reference marks, that their browser or their computer has inadequate support for Unicode The glossary entry at the link in this note contains a “help” link to an authoritative external Web page for resolving problems with displaying Unicode. ]
numbers
Numeric values are rarely spelled out, regardless of value, on this Web site. Spelling out low-valued numbers, but only for a certain set of numbers whose boundary value differs among editors and publishers, e.g.: “numbers under 101, round numbers (for example, about two hundred years ago . . .),  and isolated numbers”[*]. It could be argued that there's useful redundancy for the integrity of data recorded on soft materials like paper, in case of attack by critters that feed on it, e.g.: “sixt[munch!]nth century” versus “[munch!]th century”, but only for the smallish set of numbers to which this quaint rule applies.
[Note *: (Anon.) 1974: Words into Type, 3rd edn.  Parentheses, ellipsis, and italics (instead of single quotes) in the marked quotation are shown above as they appear in the original text. ]
order of words
As a concession to this digital medium of communication, entries herein are arranged in character-by-character order. E.g.: “St.” is alphabetized under the characters of that abbreviation (including the ‘dot’), not under the word “Saint” that the letters abbreviate. See notes at “name” or “nomen”.
(Web) philosophy
The designer & webmaster of this Web site long ago adopted a philosophy of making it efficient and usable for traditional Catholic site-visitors, with special attention to their demographics (at least according to conventional wisdom). They're expected to include a significant proportion of people on fixed incomes, who would not be using the most up-to-date computing devices for visiting this Web site.

This site was designed to avoid computing technologies that would put a heavy--if not unbearable--performance burden on older devices. If someone has an Internet connection to a decade-and-a-half-old computer system that still works (e.g.: a Pentium II PC running Windows 98, or a candy-colored Apple iMac G3), and it does practically everything he|she needs it to do, then, to paraphrase a rhetorical question attributed to a famous resident of Vatican City: “who am I  to judge?”[#]  Readers might've encountered Web-site designers so arrogant that they'd insist that such a system--fully operational--is just too old & decrepit even to be able to display a schedule for Christmastide or Holy Week that's expressed entirely in text. And so design their Web sites with indifference to the performance burden imposed by showing off dazzling--but superfluous--technical features. But not here!  Thus, no PDF-only announcements or schedules, no imbedded audio nor video, no animation (whether as Flash™ or via abuse of the GIF file-type), no links to social media[@], and nearly no Javascript.
[Note #: Despite using the topical quote (albeit presumably in translation), the webmaster does not endorse the modernist social philosophy that the resident of Vatican City plainly intended his rhetorical question to express; furthermore, the webmaster strongly questions whether the quoted person's plainly modernist social philosophy is consistent with traditional Catholicism.

Note @: Which requires the layout & display of a user-requested Web page to be either yanked around, or completely delayed, by waiting for each social-media service's servers, wherever in the world they are, to tally users' “likes”, at those servers' apparent computational leisure. The delay is even worse if the user-requested Web page is designed to display the latest tweets from various sources. ]
point-of-view (POV)
This Web site was created to publicize traditional Catholicism via the World-Wide Web: In particular, the seasonal schedules of Masses, sacraments, and devotions that are offered by the independent Sacred Heart Traditional Catholic Church, in tourism-intensive Central Florida (U.S.A.). This site has been expanded beyond those schedules, to provide additional information, to more broadly advocate traditional Catholicism. Thus quite intentionally, this site does not present a neutral point-of-view of the Catholic Faith. Furthermore, it does not present a neutral view even on the distinction between the Catholic Faith as traditionally taught or practiced, i.e., before Vatican II, versus the Novus Ordo religion that was devised in episodes of modernist innovation after that council.[+]

Thus, this site has no intention of attempting to comply with secular policies of neutrality, especially not the very problematic “Wikipedia:Neutral point of view”[#]:
[...] representing fairly, proportionately, and as far as possible, without bias, all of the significant views that have been published by reliable sources on a topic. [....] This policy is nonnegotiable [....]
But wait!  Wouldn't Wikipedia consider the Vatican among “reliable sources” on Catholicism?  And if a man bearing the title “pope”,  garbed in white in public, expresses a “view”,  does that make it “significant”  for Catholic faith, morals, or practices?  Does such a “view” place any obligation(s) on faithful Catholics? [+]

So it should come as no surprise that this Web site does not even attempt to present a neutral point-of-view on the faith, morals, practices, or extreme habits of false religions, whether the issue is the modernist Protestant innovation of ordained priestesses & bishopesses[+], or the continuing slaughter or exile of innocent Christians by infidels in the late-20th & 21st centuries, especially by Jihadist Muslims.
[Note #: “Wikipedia:Neutral point of view”: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:NPOV>. The combination of this policy and other idealistic policies has repeatedly failed at Wikipedia on articles that arouse strong emotions, especially those of hostility, leading to unapologetic fraud and violations of fundamental Wikipedia policies. This has been embarrassingly demonstrated, most relevantly for this Web site, by the Wikipedia article “Catholic Church”: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_Church>, which was manipulated by scandalous fraud in 2005--2007, and is the cause over which continual battles have been fought, pitting Protestant and social-history-obsessed editors against Catholic editors in 2008--2010 (it's presently unclear how long after 2010 the latter persisted).

Note +: Cave !  This page bears no Nihil obstat; it bears no Imprimatur. ]
printer-friendly
This Web site is already, to a great degree, printer-friendly. It's free of almost all things that guzzle precious printer ink without offering useful information in return, or waste space on printed pages, as exemplified by those Web sites that devote 1 or more entire columns of its pages to advertisements or to lists of links (without showing their corresponding Web addresses) to favorite blogs or other external Web sites.

As of late 2014, visible features for navigation within longer Web pages (e.g.: the 1-per-letter colored rectangles near the top of many pages) can be eliminated when preparing the whole page for printing, depending on how the visitor caused the Web page to be loaded: Then hit the 'Enter' key (or press a “Go” button or icon--if any--on the screen): Doing so does not cause the printer to begin physically printing; instead, it only reformats the page, removing content that's superfluous for pages that will be printed. The Web page should then be ready to use the browser's 'Print preview' or 'Print' commands.

Some pages on this Web site (especially unofficial ones) have grown dramatically in length over the past few years, so the time to transfer them across the Internet to a browser might've become an issue for some visitors who are limited to dial-up or portable wireless connections. The longest pages [#]:
Being text, the main file for each page should be highly compressible during transfer (thus accomplished much more quickly than would be expected from their uncompressed sizes, tallied above).

The webmaster is seeking alternatives to chopping those 2 longest pages (thus inevitably others later), into 1 file per (definition) entry, but might be unable to avoid that conventional solution.[§]
[Note #: Computed from versions in development within the octave of the Epiphany (esp.12 Jan. 2015).

Note §: The webmaster attempted 1 additional completely plausible approach that would've allowed each entry on a Web page to be automatically loaded as a much shorter ad hoc server-generated page (i.e.: one limited to entries beginning with the initial letter of the entry requested from a visitor's browser), but preliminary testing on the development server disappointingly demonstrated that the technology used for these Web pages failed to provide the name of the entry requested. Although “failed” might be unfairly harsh: It's also plausible that the name of the entry (i.e.: the fragment-id) is not actually included in the request from the browser to the server, but is completely processed internally by the browser. Sigh. ]
quotation marks
A British style guide cautions: “The relative position of quotation marks and other punctuation is far more contentious. The British convention is to place such punctuation according to sense. The American convention is simpler but less logical”.[**]  Be that as it may, on this Web site, the relation of quotation marks to unpaired punctuation marks follows the British “Hart's rules”[*], in summary: Punctuation is enclosed by quotation marks only if that punctuation appeared in the text being quoted. E.g.: A period (i.q. full stop) immediately precedes a closing quote only if the quoted text extended through the end of a sentence; otherwise, if the quote completes the quoting sentence, the period will immediately follow the closing quote. Not only logical, but also simple, by virtue of the absence of exceptions.

The Webmaster concedes that he yielded to his concern that despite his preference, it would be too confusing to U.S. readers for this Web site to adopt the logical and simply extensible British convention for quoting (“except in The Economist”): “single quotation marks are used first, then double [quotation marks for quotes within quotes ....]”[**]
[Note *: “Hart” was named in passing as a source (as if all readers would know who he is or was) by The Economist Style Guide: The essentials of elegant writing (1992), p. 60. Presumably not the phonetically perceptive spelling reformer John Hart (ob. 1574), but instead, Horace Henry Hart (1840--1916) of the eponymous Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford. Its 19th edition (1905), already expanded to 99 pp. from its single-broadsheet origin (1893), is available on the Web via the Internet Archive: <https://archive.org/details/rulesforcomposi00bradgoog> (HTML, 2.2 MB PDF, &c.). Its 39th edition (1983) had a corrected printing as late as 1989, and was reprinted as recently as 2000 (thus identifying the printings that this webmaster would prefer to obtain). Then OUP changed it to emphasize editing over typesetting, producing a 40th edition in 2002. Even more recently (no longer ago than 2005), that press has announced New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide. Oxford U. Press.  <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/secondary/harts_rules>. On this side of the Pond, one can only hope they didn't ruin it like they did Henry W. Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926): It'd been given a faithful revision into a 2nd edition (1965) by Sir Ernest Gowers, with its final reprinting at least as recently as 1989, but then, whoever was Gower's successor reversed it from its highly valued prescriptivist orientation, to the descriptivist orientation of its 3rd revision.

Note **: The Economist Style Guide: The essentials of elegant writing (1992), p. 85. ]
Semitic words
Display of the few words in Semitic scripts on this Web site, notably square Hebrew and Aramaic, requires that a site visitor's browser support Unicode. See “character sets” (this page, above).

Roots of Semitic words are displayed in Hebrew, but without the institutionalized diacritical marks that would indicate vowels, for a few reasons:
There are no phonetic equivalents in the Latin alphabet for 2 letters that are consonants in Semitic scripts, e.g.: Arabic, Aramaic, and Hebrew. See “transliteration” (this page, below).

At this time, individual letters of Arabic are used, in their isolated forms, as decorative illustrations for a few entries. Although the webmaster for this Web site is not literate in Arabic, he is aware that centuries ago, various useful Arabic phrases were indirectly adopted as English words, from ‘A’: “as sumūt ” (M.E.azimut”) to ‘Z’: “samt ar-rās” (surprisingly rendered in M.E. as “cenith”[#], but eventually as “zenith”).

Be that as it may, the on-going persecution of Christians, especially by Muslims in the Middle East and Africa, has stimulated the webmaster to begin to compile Arabic words that are used by Islamists to disparage Christians or nonMuslims, although only as transliterated  to the Latin alphabet (albeit with ad hoc extensions). As far as the webmaster knows, none of the Arabic words he's compiled have literal translations that would be considered obscene by Western standards. But such a concern is not, um, ungrounded: According to a 1981 article on the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language [*]:
Arabic, which is rich in earthy phrases, loaned some of them to Hebrew. If you get into a traffic accident with a Tel Aviv cab driver you will probably hear some of them. Ben Yehuda ⟨the “father of modern Hebrew”⟩ would not have approved but it is inevitable.
[Note #: The webmaster strongly suspects a mistaken transcription of a Visigothic letter.

Note *: Stephen Roane 1981: “How a Dead Language Came to Life[:] The Revival of Hebrew”. Jewish Currents (May, 1981), p. 26 in 22--26. ]
transliteration
There are no phonetic equivalents in the Latin alphabet for 2 letters that are consonants in Semitic scripts, e.g.: Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic[×]. In recent modern centuries, the desire to represent them using characters available on office machines (e.g.: typewriters) for Western European languages, notably in library card catalogs, has caused nonletter characters to be adopted and standardized. Regrettably, tiny characters normally used as punctuation have typically been chosen, e.g.: ‘ ' ’, ‘ ` ’, and the corresponding “typographic” (i.q. “curly” or “printers'”) characters. They were tolerable choices in the 19th & 20th Centuries for the limited syntactic context of library-catalog cards. But in the 21st Century, Unicode provides viable alternatives (see “character sets”, this page, above) that can avoid the eye-strain institutionalized by substituting tiny marks in place of full-size letters. Except that despite the rare opportunity for Unicode to provide clean solutions that eliminate the ambiguities that have been caused by decades of stretching the use of ASCII to provide ad hoc solutions to issues that it wasn't designed to address, Unicode and Microsoft have created new syntactic ambiguities, by conflating bracketing syntactic marks (e.g.: for quotation) with lexical marks that are parts of words (e.g.: apostrophe, and breathing for classical Greek); in particular, the latter are not formatting opportunities for line-breaks. This webmaster discovered, e.g., that a mysterious data-transfer problem on another Web site was caused by data generated by someone else, who was blissfully unaware that her late-20th-Century version of Microsoft Word was unconditionally & silently replacing genuine apostrophes with semantically very different right single-quotes, and storing them using an internationally nonstandard encoding (i.e.: CP-1252 d.b.a. “WinLatin1”)!  In that same year (2010), Unicode 6.0 presented as “preferred” that same erroneous--it's overly charitable to call it merely confounding--replacement, promulgating it as if order will be restored to text processing all around Planet Earth, if only their ambiguous standard Unicode encoding replaces the ambiguous nonstandard Windows encoding. Sigh. 

So it was that this Web master rejected transliteration using tiny characters that not only are scarce-few pixels' difference from crud on a computer screen, or stray flecks of ink on paper, but also might be unexpectedly mistreated by a Web browser. Instead, this Web site experimentally uses the full-size letters that are specified as the problematic constants' phonetic equivalents in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA ≼ 1993): Both have been encoded in Unicode in its IPA Extensions character set, at U+0250--02AF since version 1.0.0 (1991). Those 2 letters will likely puzzle quite a few readers, but at least they'll be put on their guard by the unfamiliar shapes. Had the Hebrew letters simply been transliterated into their corresponding glyphs as adopted into Greek and Latin, i.e.: ‘ A ’ and ‘ O ’, respectively, few readers would realize that they should not be treated as the vowels that they'd plainly appear to be, but instead, as consonants whose rough sounds are strange to the ears of native speakers of many Western European languages.
[Note ×: By not presenting words in Arabic, this Web site avoids the complication of hamza: a 3rd character, unique to Arabic writing (its glyph resembling a left-tilted mirrored ‘ 2 ’), which also has no phonetic equivalent in the Latin alphabet, but even for Arabic, not considered to be a full-fledged letter, and not given a place in its abjadical order. Although being analogous to a breathing in Greek, it might be appropriate to choose its transliteration from among the Unicode Modifier Letters, at U+02B0--02FF since version 1.0.0 (1991). ]

Beware:
This page bears no Nihil obstat; it bears no Imprimatur.


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